(Calvin, Genesis 1. part 13)

thoroughly imbued with iniquity, that the whole presented nothing but
what was to be condemned. For the language he employs is very emphatical:
it seemed enough to have said, that their heart was corrupt: but not
content with this word, he expressly asserts, "every imagination of the
thoughts of the heart;" and adds the word "only," as if he would deny
that there was a drop of good mixed with it.
  "Continually." Some expound this particle to mean, from commencing
infancy; as if he would say, the depravity of men is very great from the
time of their birth. But the more correct interpretation is, that the
world had then become so hardened in its wickedness, and was so far from
any amendment, or from entertaining any feeling of penitence, that it
grew worse and worse as time advanced; and further, that it was not the
folly of a few days, but the inveterate depravity which the children,
having received, as by hereditary right, transmitted from their parents
to their descendants. Nevertheless, though Moses here speaks of the
wickedness which at that time prevailed in the world, the general
doctrine is properly and consistently hence elicited. Nor do they rashly
distort the passage who extend it to the whole human race. So when David
says, 'That all have revolted, that they are become unprofitable, that
is, none who does good, no not one; their throat is an open sepulchre;
there is no fear of God before their eyes,' (Ps. 5: 10, and 14: 3;) he
deplores, truly, the impiety of his own age; yet Paul (Rom. 3: 12) does
not scruple to extend it to all men of every age: and with justice; for
it is not a mere complaint concerning a few men, but a description of the
human mind when left to itself, destitute of the Spirit of God. It is
therefore very proper that the obstinacy of the men, who had greatly
abused the goodness of Gods should be condemned in these words; yet, at
the same time, the true nature of man, when deprived of the grace of the
Spirit, is clearly exhibited.

6. "And it repented the Lord that he had made man on the earth." The
repentance which is here ascribed to God does not properly belong to him,
but has reference to our understanding of him. For since we cannot
comprehend him as he is, it is necessary that, for our sakes he should,
in a certain sense, transform himself. That repentance cannot take place
in God, easily appears from this single considerations that nothing
happens which is by him unexpected or unforeseen. The same reasoning, and
remark, applies to what follows, that God was affected with grief.
Certainly God is not sorrowful or sad; but remains forever like himself
in his celestial and happy repose: yet, because it could not otherwise be
known how great is God's hatred and detestation of sin, therefore the
Spirit accommodates himself to our capacity. Wherefore, there is no need
for us to involve ourselves in thorny and difficult questions, when it is
obvious to what end these words of repentance and grief are applied;
namely, to teach us, that from the time when man was so greatly
corrupted, God would not reckon him among his creatures; as if he would
say, 'This is not my workmanship; this is not that man who was formed in
my image, and whom I had adorned with such excellent gifts: I do not
deign now to acknowledge this degenerate and defiled creature as mine.'
Similar to this is what he says, in the second place, concerning grief;
that God was so offended by the atrocious wickedness of men, as if they
had wounded his heart with mortal grief: There is here, therefore, an
unexpressed antithesis between that upright nature which had been created
by God, and that corruption which sprung from sin. Meanwhile, unless we
wish to provoke God, and to put him to grief, let us learn to abhor and
to flee from sin. Moreover, this paternal goodness and tenderness ought,
in no slight degree, to subdue in us the love of sin; since God, in order
more effectually to pierce our hearts, clothes himself with our
affections. This figure, which represents God as transferring to himself
what is peculiar to human nature, is called "antroopopateia".

7. "And the Lord said, I will destroy man whom I have created from the
face of the earth, both man and beast, &c." He again introduces God as
deliberating, in order that we may the better know that the world was not
destroyed without mature counsel on the part of God. For the Spirit of
the Lord designed that we should be diligently admonished on this point,
in order that he might cut off occasion for those impious complaints,
into which we should be otherwise too ready to break forth. The word
"said" here means decreed; because God utters no voice, without having
inwardly determined what he would do. Besides, he had no need of new
counsel, according to the manner of men, as if he were forming a judgment
concerning something recently discovered. But all this is said in
consideration of our infirmity; that we may cleverly think of the deluge,
but it shall immediately occur to us that the vengeance of God was just.
Moreover, God, not content with the punishment of man, proceeds even to
beasts, and cattle, and fowls and every kind of living creatures. In
which he seems to exceed the bounds of moderation: for although the
impiety of men is hateful to him, yet to what purpose is it to be angry
with unoffending animals? But it is not wonderful that those animals,
which were created for man's sake, and lived for his use, should
participate in his ruin: neither asses, nor oxen, nor any other animals,
had done evil; yet being in subjection to man when he fell, they were
drawn with him into the same destruction. The earth was like a wealthy
house, well supplied with every kind of provision in abundance and
variety. Now, since man has defiled the earth itself with his crimes, and
has vilely corrupted all the riches with which it was replenished, the
Lord also designed that the monument of his punishment should there be
placed: just as if a judge, about to punish a most wicked and nefarious
criminal, should, for the sake of greater infamy, command his house to be
razed to the foundation. And this all tends to inspire us with a dread of
sin; for we may easily infer how great is its atrocity, when the
punishment of it is extended even to the brute creation.

8. "But Noah found grace in the eyes of the Lord." This is a Hebrew
phrase, which signifies that God was propitious to him, and favoured him.
For so the Hebrews are accustomed to speak:--'If I have found grace in
thy sight,' instead of, 'If I am acceptable to thee,' or, 'If thou wilt
grant me thy benevolence or favor.' Which phrase requires to be noticed,
because certain unlearned men infer with futile subtlety, that if men
find grace in God's sight, it is because they seek it by their own
industry and merits. I acknowledge, indeed, that here Noah is declared to
have been acceptable to God, because, by living uprightly and homily, he
kept himself pure from the common pollutions of the world; whence,
however, did he attain this integrity, but from the preventing grace of
God? The commencement, therefore, of this favour was gratuitous mercy.
Afterwards, the Lord, having once embraced him, retained him under his
own hand, lest he should perish with the rest of the world.

9. "These are the generations of Noah." The Hebrew word "toledot"
properly means generation. It has, however, sometimes a more extended
sense, and applies to the whole history of life; this indeed seems to be
its meaning in the present place. For when Moses had stated that one man
was found whom God,--when he had determined to destroy the whole world,--
would yet preserve, he briefly describes what kind of person he was. And,
in the first place, asserts, that he was just and upright among the men
of his age: for here is a different Hebrew noun, "dor", which signifies
an age, or the time of a life. The word "tamim" which the ancient
interpreter is accustomed to translate perfect, is of the same force as
upright or sincere; and is opposed to what is deceitful, pretended, and
vain. And Moses does not rashly connect these two things together; for
the world, being always influenced by external splendour, estimates
justice, not by the affection of the heart, but by bare works. If,
however, we desire to be approved by God, and accounted righteous before
him, we must not only regulate our hands, and eyes, and feet, in
obedience to his Law; but integrity of heart is above all things
required, and holds the chief place in the true definition of
righteousness. Let us, however, know that they are called just and
upright, not who are in every respect perfect, and in whom there is no
defect; but who cultivate righteousness purely, and from their heart.
Because we are assured that God does not act towards his own people with
the rigour of justice, as requiring of them a life according to the
perfect rule of the Law; for, if only no hypocrisy reigns within them,
but the pure love of rectitude flourishes, and fills their hearts, he
pronounces them, according to his clemency, to be righteous.
  The clause, "in his generations," is emphatical. For he has already
often said, and will soon repeat it, that nothing was more corrupt than
that age. Therefore, it was a remarkable instance of constancy, that Noah
being surrounded on every side with the filth of iniquity, should hence
have contracted no contagion. We know how great is the force of custom,
so that nothing is more difficult than to live homily among the wicked,
and to avoid being led away by their evil examples. Scarcely is there one
in a hundred who has not in his mouth that diabolical proverb, 'We must
howl when we are among the wolves;' and the greater part,--framing a rule
for themselves from the common practice,--judge everything to be lawful
which is generally received. As, however, the singular virtue of Noah is
here commended; so let us remember that we are instructed what we ought
to do, though the whole world were rushing to its own destruction. If, at
the present time, the morals of men are so vitiated, and the whole mode
of life so confused, that probity has become most rare; still more vile
and dreadful was the confusion in the time of Noah, when he had not even
one associate in the worship of God, and in the pursuit of holiness. If
he could bear up against the corruptions of the whole world, and against
such constant and vehement assaults of iniquity; no excuse is left for
us, unless, with equal fortitude of mind, we prosecute a right course
through innumerable obstacles of vice. It is not improbable that Moses
uses the word generations in the plural number, the more fully to declare
what a strenuous and invincible combatant Noah was, who, through so many
ages, had remained unaltered. Besides, the manner of cultivating
righteousness, which he had adopted is explained in the context; namely
that he had "walked with God," which excellency he had also commended in
the holy father Enoch, in the preceding chapter, where we have stated
what the expression means. When the corruption of morals was so great in
the earth, if Noah had had respect to man, he would have been cast into a
profound labyrinth. He sees, therefore, this to be his only remedy;
namely, to disregard men, that he may fix all his thoughts on God, and
make Him the sole Arbiter of his life. Whence it appears, how foolishly
the Papists clamour that we ought to follow the fathers; when the Spirit
expressly recalls us from the imitation of men, except so far as they
lead us to God. Moses again mentions his three sons, for the purpose of
showing that, in the greatest sorrow by which he was almost consumed, he
was yet able to have offspring, in order that God might have a small
remnant of seed for himself.

11. "The earth also was corrupt before God." In the former clause of this
verse Moses describes that impious contempt of God, which had left no
longer any religion in the world; but the light of equity being extinct,
all men had plunged into sin. In the second clause he declares, that the
love of oppression, that frauds, injuries, rapines, and all kinds of
injustice, prevailed. And these are the fruits of impiety, that men, when
they have revolted from God,--forgetful of mutual equity among
themselves,--are carried forward to insane ferocity, to rapines, and to
oppressions of all sorts. God again declares that he had seen this; in
order that he may commend his longsuffering to us. The earth is here put
for its inhabitants; and the explanation immediately follows, 'that all
flesh had corrupted its way.' Yet the word flesh is not here understood
as before, in a bad sense; but is meant for men, without any mark of
censure: as in other places of Scripture, 'All flesh shall see the glory
of the Lord,' (Isaiah 40: 5.) 'Let all flesh be silent before the Lord,'
(Zech. 2: 13.)

13. "And God said unto Noah." Here Moses begins to relate how Noah would
be preserved. And first, he says, that the counsel of God respecting the
destruction of the world was revealed to him. Secondly, that the command
to build the ark was given. Thirdly, that safety was promised him, if, in
obedience to God, he would take refuge in the ark. These chief points are
to be distinctly noted; even as the Apostle, when he proclaims the faith
of Noah, joins fear and obedience with confidence, (Heb. 11: 7.) And it
is certain that Noah was admonished of the dreadful vengeance which was
approaching; not only in order that he might be confirmed in his holy
purpose, but that, being constrained by fear, he might the more ardently
seek for the favour offered to him. We know that the impunity of the
wicked is sometimes the occasion of alluring even the good to sin: the
denunciation, therefore, of future punishment ought to be effectual in
restraining the mind of a holy man; lest, by gradual declension, he
should at length relax to the same lasciviousness. Yet God had special
reference to the other point; namely, that by keeping continually in view
the terrible destruction of the world, Noah might be more and more
excited to fear and solicitude. For it was necessary, that in utter
despair of help from any other quarter, he should seek his safety, by
faith, in the ark. For so long as life was promised to him on earth,
never would he have been so intent as he ought, in the building of the
ark; but, being alarmed by the judgment of God, he earnestly embraces the
promise of life given unto him. He no longer relies upon the natural
causes or means of life; but rests exclusively on the covenant of God, by
which he was to be miraculously preserved. No labour is now troublesome
or difficult to him; nor is he broken down by long fatigue. For the spur
of God's anger pierces him too sharply to allow him to sleep in carnal
delights, or to faint under temptations, or to be delayed in his course
by vain hope: he rather stirs himself up, both to flee from sin, and to
seek a remedy. And the Apostle teaches, that it was not the least part of
his faith, that through the fear of those things which were not seen he
prepared an ark. When faith is treated of simply, mercy and the
gratuitous promise come into the account; but when we wish to express all
its parts, and to canvass its entire force and nature, it is necessary
that fear also should be joined with it. And, truly no one will ever
seriously resort to the mercy of God, but he who, having been touched
with the threatening of God, shall dread that judgment of eternal death
which they denounce, shall abhor himself on account of his own sins,
shall not carelessly indulge his vices, nor slumber in his pollution; but
shall anxiously sigh for the remedy of his evils. This was, truly, a
peculiar privilege of grace, that God warned Noah of the future deluge.
Indeed, he frequently commands his threatening to be proposed to the
elect, and reprobate, in common; that by inviting both to repentance, he
may humble the former, and render the latter inexcusable. But while the
greater part of mankind, with deaf ears, reject whatever is spoken, he
especially turns his discourse to his own people, who are still curable,
that by the fear of his judgment he may train them to piety. The
condition of the wicked might at that time seem desirable, in comparison
with the anxiety of holy Noah. They were securely flattering themselves
in their own delights; for we know what Christ declares concerning the
luxury of that period, (Luke 17: 26.) Meanwhile, the holy man, as if the
world were every moment going to ruin, groaned anxiously and sorrowfully.
But if we consider the end; God granted an inestimable benefit to his
servant, in denouncing to him a danger, of which he must beware.
  "The earth is filled with violence through them." God intimates that
men were to be taken away, in order that the earth, which had been
polluted by the presence of beings so wicked, might be purified.
Moreover, in speaking only of the iniquity and violence, of the frauds
and rapines, of which they were guilty towards each other; he does it,
not as if he were intending to remit his own claims upon them, but
because this was a more gross and palpable demonstration of their

14. "Make thee an ark of gopher wood." Here follows the command to build
the ark, in which God wonderfully proved the faith and obedience of his
servant. Concerning its structure, there is no reason why we should
anxiously inquire, except so far as our own edification is concerned.
First, the Jews are not agreed among themselves respecting the kind of
wood of which it was made. Some explain the word gopher to be the cedar;
others, the fir-tree; others, the pine. They differ also respecting the
stories; because many think that the sink was in the fourth place, which
might receive the refuse and other impurities. Others make five chambers
in a triple floor, of which they assign the highest to the birds. There
are those who suppose that it was only three stories in height; but that
these were separated by intermediate divisions. Besides, they do not
agree about the window: to some it appears that there was not one window
only, but many. Some say they were open to receive air; but others
contend that they were only made for the sake of light, and therefore
were covered over with crystal, and lined with pitch. To me it seems more
probable, that there was only one, not cut out for the sake of giving
light; but to remain shut, unless occasion required it to be opened, as
we shall see afterwards. Further, that there was a triple story, and
rooms separated in a manner to us unknown. The question respecting its
magnitude is more difficult. For, formerly, certain profane men ridiculed
Moses, as having imagined that so vast a multitude of animals was shut up
in so small a space; a third part of which would scarcely contain four
elephants. Origin solves this question, by saying that a geometrical
cubit was referred to by Moses, which is six times greater than the
common one; to whose opinion Augustine assents in his fifteenth book on
the 'City of God,' and his first book of 'Questions on Genesis.' I grant
what they allege, that Moses, who had been educated in all the science of
the Egyptians, was not ignorant of geometry; but since we know that Moses
everywhere spoke in a homely style, to suit the capacity of the people,
and that he purposely abstained from acute disputations, which might
savour of the schools and of deeper learning; I can by no means persuade
myself, that, in this place, contrary to his ordinary method, he employed
geometrical subtlety. Certainly, in the first chapter, he did not treat
scientifically of the stars, as a philosopher would do; but he called
them, in a popular manner, according to their appearance to the
uneducated, rather than according to truth, "two great lights." Thus we
may everywhere perceive that he designates things, of every kind by their
accustomed names. But what was then the measure of the cubit I know not;
it is, however, enough for me, that God (whom, without controversy, I
acknowledge to be the chief builder of the ark) well knew what things the
place which he described to his servant was capable of holding. If you
exclude the extraordinary power of God from this history, you declare
that mere fables are related. But, by us, who confess that the remains of
the world were preserved by an incredible miracle, it ought not to be
regarded as an absurdity, that many wonderful things are here related, in
order that hence the secret and incomprehensible power of God, which far
surpasses all our senses, may be the more clearly exhibited. Porphyry or
some other caviler, may object, that this is fabulous, because the reason
of it does not appear; or because it is unusual; or because it is
repugnant to the common order of nature. But I make the rejoinder; that
this entire narration of Moses, unless it were replete with miracles
would be colds and trifling, and ridiculous. He, however, who will
reflect aright upon the profound abyss of Divine omnipotence in this
history, will rather sink in reverential awe, than indulge in profane
mockery. I purposely pass over the allegorical application which
Augustine makes of the figure of the ark to the body of Christ, both in
his fifteenth book of 'The City of God,' and his twelfth book against
Faustus; because I find there scarcely anything solid. Origin still more
boldly sports with allegories: but there is nothing more profitable, than
to adhere strictly to the natural treatment of things. That the ark was
an image of the Church is certain, from the testimony of Peter, (1 Peter
3: 21;) but to accommodate its several parts to the Church, is by no
means suitable, as I shall again show, in its proper place.

18. "But with thee will I establish my covenant." Since the construction
of the ark was very difficult, and innumerable obstacles might
perpetually arise to break off the work when begun, God confirms his
servant by a super added promise. Thus was Noah encouraged to obey God;
seeing that he relied on the Divine promise, and was confident that his
labour would not be in vain. For then do we freely embrace the commands
of God, when a promise is attached to them, which teaches us that we
shall not spend our strength for nought. Whence it appears how foolishly
the Papists are deceived, who triflingly argue, that men are led away by
the doctrine of faith from the desire of doing well. For what will be the
degree of our alacrity in well-doing, unless faith enlighten us? Let us
therefore know, that the promises of God alone, are they which quicken
us, and inspire each of our members with vigour to yield obedience to
God: but that without these promises, we not only lie torpid in
indolence, but are almost lifeless, so that neither hands nor feet can do
their duty. And hence, as often as we become languid, or more remiss than
we ought to be, in good works, let the promises of God recur to us, to
correct our tardiness. For thus, according to the testimony of Paul,
(Col. 1: 5,) love flourishes in the saints, on account of the hope laid
up for them in heaven. It is especially necessary that the faithful
should be confirmed by the word of God, lest they faint in the midst of
their course; to the end that they may certainly be assured that they are
not beating the air, as they say; but that, acquiescing in the promise
given them, and being sure of success, they follow God who calls them.
This connection, then, is to be borne in mind, that when God was
instructing his servant Moses what he would have him do, he declares, for
the purpose of retaining him in obedience to himself, that he requires
nothing of him in vain. Now, the sum of this covenant of which Moses
speaks was, that Noah should be safe, although the whole world should
perish in the deluge. For there is an understood antithesis, that the
whole world being rejected, the Lord would establish a peculiar covenant
with Noah alone. Wherefore, it was the duty of Noah to oppose this
promise of God, like a wall of iron, against all the terrors of death;
just as if it were the purpose of God, by this sole word, to discriminate
between life and death. But the covenant with him is confirmed, with this
condition annexed, that his family shall be preserved for his sake; and
also the brute animals, for the replenishing of the new world; concerning
which I shall say more in the ninth chapter.

19. "And of every living thing of all flesh." "All flesh" is the name he
gives to animals of whatsoever kind they may be. He says they went in two
and two; not that a single pair of each kind was received into the ark,
(for we shall soon see that there were three pairs of the clean kinds,
and one animal over, which Noah afterwards offered in sacrifice;) but
whereas here mention is made only of offspring, he does not expressly
state the number, but simply couples males with females, that Noah might
hence perceive how the world was to be replenished.

22. "Thus did Noah." In a few words, but with great sublimity, Moses here
commends the faith of Noah. The unskilful wonder that the apostle (Heb.
11: 7) makes him "heir of the righteousness which is by faith." As if,
truly, all the virtues, and whatsoever else was worthy of praise in this
holy man, had not sprung from this fountain. For we ought to consider the
assaults of temptation to which his breast was continually exposed.
First, the prodigious size of the ark might have overwhelmed all his
senses, so as to prevent him from raising a finger to begin the work. Let
the reader reflect on the multitude of trees to be felled, on the great
labour of conveying them, and the difficulty of joining them together.
The matter was also long deferred; for the holy man was required to be
engaged more than a hundred years in most troublesome labour. Nor can we
suppose him to have been so stupid, as not to reflect upon obstacles of
this kind. Besides, it was scarcely to be hoped, that the men of his age
would patiently bear with him, for promising himself an exclusive
deliverance, attended with ignominy to themselves. Their unnatural
ferocity has been before mentioned; there can therefore be no doubt that
they would daily provoke modest and simpleminded men, even without cause.
But here was a plausible occasion for insult; since Noah, by felling
trees on all sides, was making the earth bare, and defrauding them of
various advantages. It is a common proverb, that perverse and contentious
men will dispute about an ass's shadow. What, then, might Noah think,
would those fierce Cyclops do for the shadow of so many trees; who, being
practiced in every kind of violence, would seize with eagerness on all
sides an occasion of exercising cruelty? But this was what chiefly tended
to inflame their rage, that he, by building an asylum for himself,
virtually doomed them all to destruction. Certainly, unless they had been
restrained by the mighty hand of God, they would have stoned the holy man
a hundred times; still it is probable, that their vehemence was not so
far repressed, as to prevent them from frequently assailing him with
scoffs and derision, from heaping upon him many reproaches, and pursuing
him with grievous threats. I even think, that they did not restrain their
hands from disturbing his work. Therefore, although he may have addressed
himself with alacrity to the work committed to him; yet his constancy
might have failed more than a thousand times, in so many years, unless it
had been firmly rooted. Moreover, as the work itself appeared
impracticable, it may be further asked, Whence were provisions for the
year to be obtained? Whence food for so many animals? He is commanded to
lay up what will suffice for food during ten months for his whole family
for cattle, and wild beasts, and even for birds. Truly, it seems absurd,
that after he has been disengaged from agriculture, in order to build the
ark, he should be commanded to collect a two-years' store of provision;
but much more trouble attended the providing of food for animals. He
might therefore have suspected that God was mocking him. His last work
was to gather animals of all kinds together. As if, indeed, he had all
the beasts of the forest at his command, or was able to tame them; so
that, in his keeping, wolves might dwell with lambs, tigers with hares,
lions with oxen--as sheep in his fold. But the most grievous temptation
of all was, that he was commanded to descend, as into the grave, for the
sake of preserving his life, and voluntarily to deprive himself of air
and vital spirit; for the smell of dung alone pent up, as it was, in a
closely filled place, might, at the expiration of three days, have
stifled all the living creatures in the ark. Let us reflect on these
conflicts of the holy man--so severe, and multiplied and long-continued--
in order that we may know how heroic was his courage, in prosecuting, to
the utmost, what God had commanded him to do. Moses, indeed, says in a
single word that he did it; but we must consider how far beyond all human
power was the doing of it: and that it would have been better to die a
hundred deaths, than to undertake a work so labourious, unless he had
looked to something higher than the present life. A remarkable example,
therefore, of obedience is here described to us; because, Noah,
committing himself entirely to God, rendered Him due honour. We know, in
this corruption of our nature, how ready men are to seek subterfuges, and
how ingenious in inventing pretexts for disobedience to God. Wherefore,
let us also learn to break through every kind of impediment, and not to
give place to evil thoughts, which oppose themselves to the word of God,
and with which Satan attempts to entangle our minds, that they may not
obey the command of God. For God especially demands this honour to be
given to himself, that we should suffer him to judge for us. And this is
the true proof of faith, that we, being content with one of his commands,
gird ourselves to the work, so that we do not swerve in our course,
whatever obstacle Satan may place in our way, but are borne on the wings
of faith above the world. Moses also shows, that Noah obeyed God, not in
one particular only, but in all. Which is diligently to be observed;
because hence, chiefly, arises dreadful confusion in our life, that we
are not able, unreservedly to submit ourselves to God; but when we have
discharged some part of our duty, we often blend our own feelings with
his word. But the obedience of Noah is celebrated on this, account, that
it was entire, not partial; so that he omitted none of those things which
God had commanded.

Chapter VII.

1 And the LORD said unto Noah, Come thou and all thy house into the ark;
for thee have I seen righteous before me in this generation.
2 Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee by sevens, the male and
his female: and of beasts that [are] not clean by two, the male and his
3 Of fowls also of the air by sevens, the male and the female; to keep
seed alive upon the face of all the earth.
4 For yet seven days, and I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty
days and forty nights; and every living substance that I have made will I
destroy from off the face of the earth.
5 And Noah did according unto all that the LORD commanded him.
6 And Noah [was] six hundred years old when the flood of waters was upon
the earth.
7 And Noah went in, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives with
him, into the ark, because of the waters of the flood.
8 Of clean beasts, and of beasts that [are] not clean, and of fowls, and
of every thing that creepeth upon the earth,
9 There went in two and two unto Noah into the ark, the male and the
female, as God had commanded Noah.
10 And it came to pass after seven days, that the waters of the flood
were upon the earth.
11 In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the
seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the
great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.
12 And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights.
13 In the selfsame day entered Noah, and Shem, and Ham, and Japheth, the
sons of Noah, and Noah's wife, and the three wives of his sons with them,
into the ark;
14 They, and every beast after his kind, and all the cattle after their
kind, and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth after his
kind, and every fowl after his kind, every bird of every sort.
15 And they went in unto Noah into the ark, two and two of all flesh,
wherein [is] the breath of life.
16 And they that went in, went in male and female of all flesh, as God
had commanded him: and the LORD shut him in.
17 And the flood was forty days upon the earth; and the waters increased,
and bare up the ark, and it was lift up above the earth.
18 And the waters prevailed, and were increased greatly upon the earth;
and the ark went upon the face of the waters.
19 And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth; and all the high
hills, that [were] under the whole heaven, were covered.
20 Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail; and the mountains were
21 And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, both of fowl, and of
cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the
earth, and every man:
22 All in whose nostrils [was] the breath of life, of all that [was] in
the dry [land], died.
23 And every living substance was destroyed which was upon the face of
the ground, both man, and cattle, and the creeping things, and the fowl
of the heaven; and they were destroyed from the earth: and Noah only
remained [alive], and they that [were] with him in the ark.
24 And the waters prevailed upon the earth an hundred and fifty days.

1. "And the Lord said unto Noah." I have no doubt that Noah was
confirmed, as he certainly needed to be, by oracles frequently repeated.
He had already sustained, during one hundred years, the greatest and most
furious assaults; and the invincible combatant had achieved memorable
victories; but the most severe contest of all was, to bid farewell to the
world, to renounce society and to bury himself in the ark. The face of
the earth was, at that time, lovely; and Moses intimates that it was the
season in which the herbs shoot forth and the trees begin to flourish.

(continued in part 14...)

file: /pub/resources/text/ipb-e/epl-01/cvgn1-13.txt