Calvin, Commentary on Micah, Part 9
(... continued from part 8)

Lecture Eighty-ninth. 
Micah 4:5 
For all people will walk every one in the name of his god, and we 
will walk in the name of the Lord our God for ever and ever. 
    Micah, after having spoken of the restoration of the Church, 
now confirms the same truth, and shows that the faithful would have 
reason enough to cleave constantly to their God, and to despise all 
the superstitions of the world, and that though they may be tossed 
here and there by contrary opinions, they will yet continue in true 
religion. This verse then is connected with the kingdom of Christ; 
for until we are gathered, and Christ shines among us and rules us 
by his word, there can be in us no constancy, no firmness. But when 
under the auspices of Christ, we join together in one body the 
Church, such then becomes the constancy of our faith, that nothing 
can turn us from the right course, though new storms were at any 
time to arise, by which the whole world might be shaken, and though 
it were to happen that the universe should be agitated or pass away. 
We now understand what the Prophet means. 
    He therefore says, "All nations shall walk every one in the 
name of his god". This sentence must be thus explained, - "Though 
nations be divided into various sects, and each be addicted to their 
own superstitions, yet we shall continue firm in the pure worship of 
God and in unity of faith." But this question occurs, how could the 
Prophet say that there would be such discords in the world, when he 
had shortly before spoken of the Church being gathered and united 
together? for he had said, "Come shall all nations, and each will 
say, Come, let us ascend into the mount of Jehovah." There seems to 
be here some sort of inconsistency, - that all nations would come to 
mount Zion, and yet that every people would have their own gods. But 
the solution is not difficult: the Prophet in this verse strengthens 
the faithful, until Christ should be revealed to the world: nor is 
there any doubt but the Prophet intended to sustain the confidence 
of the godly, who might have otherwise been overwhelmed a hundred 
times with despair. When the children of Israel were driven into 
exile, when their inheritance was taken away from them, when the 
temple had been demolished, when, in a word, no visible religion 
existed, they might, as I have said, have desponded, had not this 
promise come to their minds, - that God would restore mount Zion, 
and gather a Church from the whole world. But there was also need of 
some confirmation, and this is what the Prophet now subjoins. Hence 
he says, "Since the Lord gives you hope of so glorious a 
restoration, you ought to feel confidence. and, in reliance on his 
promise, to continue in his true worship, how much soever the 
Gentiles may serve their own idols, and boast that they have the 
true God. However, then, every one of the nations may take pride in 
their superstitions, you ought not to fluctuate, nor turn here and 
there, like reeds, which are tossed to and fro, as the wind changes; 
but ye shall continue firm and steady in your course; for ye know 
that God is true, who has once for all adopted you, and has promised 
that your salvation will be the object of his care, even when the 
world shall think you to be ruined and lost." 
    We hence see that what the Prophet had in view was to raise up 
into confidence the minds of the godly in the midst not only of 
troubles, but of utter confusion. All nations then shall walk, that 
is, when the temple and the city shall be demolished, and the people 
be led into distant exile, the ungodly will, at the same time, 
triumph, every one will extol his own gods: though our God should 
not then appear, there will yet be no reason why we should be 
discouraged; but we ought to recomb on his word. "We shall then walk 
in the name of our God, and that for ever and ever"; that is, though 
it should happen that the world should a hundred times be turned and 
turned over again, there shall yet be no change in our minds: for as 
the truth of God is eternal, so also our faith ought to be constant 
and never to vary. Now the difficulty is removed, and we see how 
these two things agree, - that all nations shall come and with one 
consent worship God, and yet that to each of them there would be 
their own gods: for the diversity of time must be here regarded, 
when all nations would walk every one in the name of his god. 
    By saying, "'ish beshem 'elohaw", he touches, in an indirect 
way, on that variety which exists among men. Though all of them 
pertinaciously follow and defend their own superstitions yet each 
one fabricates a goal for himself. Thus it happens, that nothing is 
certain, for they follow only their own inventions. But this the 
Prophet meant only to touch by the way. His main object was that 
which I have stated, - that though the Church of God would be small, 
and should find a great multitude opposed to it, it ought not yet to 
succumb. We know how violent a thing is public consent; for when the 
majority conspire together, the small number, who entertain a 
different opinion, are, as it were instantly swallowed up. It is not 
then without reason that the Prophet exhorts the faithful here to an 
invincible firmness of mind, that they might triumph over all the 
nations. However small, then, might be the faithful in number, the 
Prophet wished them to look down, as it were from a higher place, 
not only on a large multitudes but on all mankind. Though then all 
nations walk, &c.: nor is the word "kol", all, superfluous, - though 
all nations shall walk, &c. There was then but one nation, the 
offspring of Abraham, among whom true religion existed; and it was a 
dreadful devastation, when God suffered the royal city and the 
temple to be pulled down, and the whole body of the people to be 
torn asunder, to be driven away here and there, so that no kingdom 
and no kind of civil community remained. Hence the Prophet intimates 
here, that though the faithful should find that in number and 
dignity they were far surpassed by their enemies, they yet should 
not despair. "Though then all the nations walked, every one in the 
name of their god, - though every people set up their superstitions 
against you, and all conspired against you together, yet stand ye 
firm and proceed in your course, and this not for a short time, but 
for ever and ever." Now this passage shows that faith depends not on 
the suffrages of men, and that we ought not to regard what any one 
may think, or what may be the consent of all; for the truth of God 
alone ought to be deemed sufficient by us. How much soever, then, 
the whole world may oppose God, our faith ought not to be 
changeable, but remain firm on this strong foundation, - that God, 
who cannot deceive, has spoken. This is one thing. Then, in the 
second place, it must be added, that this firmness ought to be 
perpetual. Though then Satan may excite against us new troubles, 
since we have hitherto stood firm as to our faith in God's word, let 
us proceed in the same course to the end. And the Prophet designedly 
added this verse; because he saw that the people would be subject to 
various and long-continued temptations. It was a long captivity: 
hence languor might have, as it were, wasted away all the confidence 
which the people then had. And further, after they returned from 
exile, we know how often and how grievously their faith was tried, 
when all their neighbors inimically assailed them, and when they 
were afterwards oppressed by cruel tyranny. This was the reason why 
the Prophet said that the children of God are to walk perpetually 
and to the end in his name. 
    Though he gives the name of gods to the idols of the nations he 
yet shows that there is a great and striking difference; for the 
nations worship their own gods, which they had invented: or how did 
they derive their majesty and their power, except from the false 
imagination of men? But the Prophet says, "Ye will walk in the name 
of Jehovah our God". He hence shows that the power and authority of 
God is not founded on any vain device of men, for he of himself 
exists, and will exist, though he were denied by the whole world. 
And this also confirms what I have already stated, - that the 
faithful ought thus to embrace the word of God, as they know that 
they have not to do with men, the credit of whom is doubtful and 
inconstant, but with him who is the true God, who cannot lie, and 
whose truth is immutable. Let us proceed - 
Micah 4:6,7 
In that day, saith the LORD, will I assemble her that halteth, and I 
will gather her that is driven out, and her that I have afflicted; 
And I will make her that halted a remnant, and her that was cast far 
off a strong nation: and the LORD shall reign over them in mount 
Zion from henceforth, even for ever. 
    The Prophet pursues the same subject. But we must ever remember 
what I have previously reminded you of, - that the trials would be 
so grievous and violent that there would be need of strong and 
uncommon remedies; for the faithful might have been a hundred times 
sunk, as it were, in the deepest gulfs, except they had been 
supported by various means. This then is the reason why the Prophet 
confirms so fully the truth which we have noticed respecting the 
restoration of the Church. 
    "In that day, he says, I will gather the halting". This 
metaphor is not only found here; for David sage that his own 
affliction was like that of halting. The word "tsole'ah" means the 
side: hence they metaphorically call those halters who walk only on 
one side: it is the same as though he had said, that they were 
maimed or weak. He then adds, "I will assemble the ejected, whom I 
have afflicted". In the next verse he repeats the same, I will make 
the halting, he says, a remnant; that is, I will make her who is now 
halting to remain alive, and her who is cast afar off, "a strong 
nation". Some explain "hannahala'ah" in a more refined manner, and 
say that it means, "She who is gone before;" as though the Prophet 
said, "God will sustain the halting, and to those who are lively he 
will add strength." But this exposition is too strained. We see that 
the context will not admit it; for the Prophet brings forward the 
Church here as afflicted by the hand of God, and nigh utter ruin: 
and then, on the other hand, he intimates, that it was to be 
restored by God's power, and that it would thereby gather new 
strength, and flourish as before: he therefore calls the Church as 
one cast far away, as in the previous verse; and the other verse 
clearly shows, that the Prophet's design was no other but to point 
out the twofold state of the Church. 
    Now, in the first place, we must observe, that the Prophet 
meets the trial then present, which must have otherwise depressed 
the hearts of the godly. He saw that they were in a manner broken 
down; and then their dispersion was as it were a symbol of final 
ruin. If then the faithful had their minds continually fixed on that 
spectacle, they might have a hundred times despaired. The Prophet 
therefore comes here seasonably to their help, and reminds them, 
that though they were now halting, there was yet in God new vigor; 
that though they were scattered, it was yet in God's power to gather 
those who had been driven afar off. The meaning briefly is, that 
though the Church differed nothing for a time from a dead man, or at 
least from one that is maimed, no despair ought to be entertained; 
for the Lord sometimes raises up his people, as though he raised the 
dead from the grave: and this fact ought to be carefully noticed, 
for as soon as the Church of God does not shine forth, we think that 
it is wholly extinct and destroyed. But the Church is so preserved 
in the world, that it sometimes rises again from death: in short, 
the preservation of the Church, almost every day, is accompanied 
with many miracles. 
    But we ought to bear in mind, that the life of the Church is 
not without a resurrection, nay, it is not without many 
resurrections, if the expression be allowed. This we learn from the 
words of the Prophet, when he says, 'I will then gather the halting, 
and assemble the driven away;' and then he adds, 'and her whom I 
have with evils afflicted.' And this has been expressly said, that 
the faithful may know, that God can bring out of the grave those 
whom he has delivered to death. For if the Jews had been destroyed 
at the pleasure of their enemies, they could not have hoped for so 
certain a remedy from God: but when they acknowledged that nothing 
happened to them except through the just judgment of God, they could 
entertain hope of restoration. How so? Because it is what is 
peculiar to God to bring forth the dead, as I have already said, 
from the grave; as it is also his work to kill. We then see that 
what the Prophet promised, respecting the restoration of the Church, 
is confirmed by this verse: "I am he," says God, "who has afflicted; 
cannot I again restore you to life? For as your death is in my hand, 
so also is your salvation. If the Assyrians or the Chaldeans had 
gained the victory over you against my will, there would be some 
difficulty in my purpose of gathering you; but as nothing has 
happened but by my command, and as I have proved that your salvation 
and your destruction is in my power, there is no reason for you to 
think that it is difficult for me to gather you, who have through my 
judgment been dispersed." 
    He then adds, "I will make the halting a remnant". By remnant 
he understands the surviving Church. Hence the metaphor, halting, is 
extended even to destruction; as though he said, "Though the Jews 
for a time may differ nothing from dead men, I will yet cause them 
to rise again, that they may become again a new people." It was 
difficult to believe this at the time of exile: no wonder, then, 
that the Prophet here promises that a posterity would be born from a 
people that were dead. For though Babylon was to them like the 
grave, yet God was able to do such a thing as to bring them forth as 
new men, as it really happened. 
    He afterwards subjoins "And the driven afar off, a strong 
nation". When the Jews were scattered here and there, how was it 
possible that God should from this miserable devastation form for 
himself a new people, and also a strong people? But the Prophet has 
put the contrary clauses in opposition to one another, that the 
Jews, amazed at their own evils, and astonished, might not cast away 
every consolation. As then he had dispersed them, he would again 
gather them, and would not only do this, but also make them a strong 
    He then adds, "Reign shall Jehovah over them on mount Zion, 
henceforth and for ever". The Prophet no doubt promises here the new 
restoration of that kingdom which God himself had erected; for the 
salvation of the people was grounded on this - that the posterity of 
David should reign, as we shall hereafter see. And it is a common 
and usual thing with the prophets to set forth the kingdom of David, 
whenever they speak of the salvation of the Church. It was necessary 
then that the kingdom of David should be again established, in order 
that the Church might flourish and be secure. But Micah does not 
here name the posterity of David, but mentions Jehovah himself, not 
to exclude the kingdom of David, but to show that God would become 
openly the founder of that kingdom, yea, that he himself possessed 
the whole power. For though God governed the ancient people by the 
hand of David, by the hand of Josiah and of Hezekiah, there was yet, 
as it were, a shade intervening, so that God reigned not then 
visibly. The Prophet then mentions here some difference between that 
shadowy kingdom and the latter new kingdom, which, at the coming of 
the Messiah, God would openly set up. Jehovah himself shall then 
reign over them; as though he said, "Hitherto indeed, when the 
posterity of David held the government, as God himself created both 
David and his sons, and as they were anointed by his authority and 
command, it could not have been thought but that the kingdom was 
his, though he governed his people by the ministry and agency of 
men: but now God himself will ascend the throne in a conspicuous 
manner, so that no one may doubt but that he is the king of his 
people." And this was really and actually fulfilled in the person of 
Christ. Though Christ was indeed the true seed of David, he was yet 
at the same time Jehovah, even God manifested in the flesh. We hence 
see, that the Prophet here in lofty terms extols the glory of 
Christ's kingdom; as though he had said that it would not be a 
shadowy kingdom as it was under the Law. Jehovah then shall reign 
over you. 
    He then subjoins, "on mount Zion". We know that the seat of the 
kingdom of Christ has not been continued on mount Zion; but this 
verse must be connected with the beginning of this chapter. The 
Prophet has previously said, "From Zion shall go forth a law, and 
the word of Jehovah from Jerusalem." If then the interpretation of 
this place be asked, that is, how Jehovah showed himself the king of 
his people, and erected his throne on mount Zion, the answer is, 
that from thence the law went forth from that place, as from a 
fountain flowed the doctrine of salvation, to replenish the whole 
world. As then the Gospel, which God caused to be promulgated 
through the whole world, had its beginning on mount Zion, so the 
Prophet says that God would reign there. But we must at the same 
time observe, that through the defection and perfidy of the people 
it has happened that mount Zion is now only an insignificant corner 
of the earth, and not the most eminent in the world, as also the 
city Jerusalem, according to the prediction of Zechariah. Mount Zion 
then is now different from what it was formerly; for wherever the 
doctrine of the Gospel is preached, there is God really worshipped, 
there sacrifices are offered; in a word, there the spiritual temple 
exists. But yet the commencement of the Gospel must be taken to the 
account, if we would understand the real meaning of the Prophet, 
that is, that Christ, or God in the person of Christ, began to reign 
on mount Zion, when the doctrine of the Gospel from thence went 
forth to the extremities of the world. It now follows - 
Micah 4:8 
And thou, O tower of the flock, the strong hold of the daughter of 
Zion, unto thee shall it come, even the first dominion; the kingdom 
shall come to the daughter of Jerusalem. 
    Micah still continues the same subject, - that the miserable 
calamities of the people, or even their ruin, will not prevent God 
to restore again his Church. "Thou tower of the flock", he says, 
"the fortress of the daughter of Zion", doubt not but that God will 
again restore to thee thy ancient kingdom and dignity from which 
thou seemest now to have entirely fallen. But interpreters take "the 
tower of the flock" in various senses. Some think that the 
devastation of the city Jerusalem is pointed out, because it became 
like a cottage, as it is said in Isaiah; and "'ofel" they render 
"obscure," for its root is to cover. But another explanation is 
simpler, - that the holy city is called "the tower of the flock," 
because God had chosen it for himself, to gather his people thence; 
for we know that they had there their holy assemblies. "Thou, then, 
the tower of the flock", and then, "the fortress of the daughter of 
Zion, to thee shall come the former kingdom". If, however, the 
former sense be more approved, I will not contend; that is, that 
Jerusalem is here called the tower of the flock on account of its 
devastation, as it was reduced as it were into a cottage. As to the 
main import of the passage, there is no ambiguity; for the Prophet 
here strengthens the minds of the godly: they were not to regard the 
length of time, nor to allow their thoughts, to be occupied with 
their present calamity, but to feel assured, that what God had 
promised was in his power, that he could, as it were, raise the 
dead, and thus restore the kingdom of David, which had been 
    Do then, he says, firmly hope. - Why? because "come to thee, 
come to thee shall the former kingdom". Here the breaking off of the 
sentence is to be noticed, when the Prophet speaks of the ancient 
kingdom and dignity. It is not indeed to be doubted, but that the 
people of God had become objects of mockery, and that hypocrites and 
heathens thought that what David had testified respecting the 
perpetuity of his kingdom was a mere delusion. 'Behold thy kingdom,' 
he said, 'shall continue as long as the sun and the moon,' (Ps. 72) 
but soon after the death of Solomon, a small portion only was 
reserved for his posterity, and at length the kingdom itself and its 
dignity disappeared. This is the reason that the Prophet now says, 
that the former kingdom would come. "Come, he says, to thee, 
daughter of Zion, come shall the former kingdom". There is indeed no 
doubt, but that by the former kingdom he understands its most 
flourishing condition, recorded in Scripture, under David and 
    The kingdom, he says, to the daughter of Jerusalem shall come. 
He expressly mentions the daughter of Jerusalem, because the kingdom 
of Israel had obscured the glory of the true kingdom. Hence the 
Prophet testifies here that God was not unmindful of his promise, 
and that he would restore to Jerusalem the dignity which it had 
lost, and unite the whole people into one body, that they might be 
no more divided, but that one king would rule over the whole race of 
Abraham. But this was not fulfilled, we are certain, at the coming 
of Christ, in a manner visible to men: we must therefore bear in 
mind what Micah has previously taught, - that this kingdom is 
spiritual; for he did not ascribe to Christ a golden sceptre, but a 
doctrine, "Come, and let us ascend unto the mount of Jehovah, and he 
will teach us of his ways;" and then he added, "From Zion shall go 
forth a law, and the word of Jehovah from Jerusalem." This, then, 
ought ever to be remembered, - that God has not rendered Jerusalem 
glorious in the sight of men, as it was formerly, nor has he 
enriched it with influence and wealth and earthly power; but he has 
yet restored the sovereign authority; for he has not only subjected 
to himself the ten tribes which had formerly revolted, but also the 
whole world. Let us go on - 
Micah 4:9,10 
Now why dost thou cry out aloud? [is there] no king in thee? is thy 
counselor perished? for pangs have taken thee as a woman in travail. 
Be in pain, and labour to bring forth, O daughter of Zion, like a 
woman in travail: for now shalt thou go forth out of the city, and 
thou shalt dwell in the field, and thou shalt go [even] to Babylon; 
there shalt thou be delivered; there the LORD shall redeem thee from 
the hand of thine enemies. 
    The Prophet blends here things in their nature wholly contrary, 
- that the Jews were for a time to be cut off, - and that afterwards 
they were to recover their former state. Why, he says, "dost thou 
cry out with crying?" We must notice the Prophet's design. He did 
not intend to overturn what he had before stated; but as the minds 
of the godly might have fainted amidst so many changes, the Prophet 
here gives them support, that they might continue firm in their 
faith; and hence he says, Why dost thou cry aloud with loud crying? 
That is, "I see that grievous troubles will arise capable of shaking 
even the stoutest hearts: time will be changeable; it will often be, 
that the faithful will be disturbed and degraded; but though various 
tumults may arise, and tempests throw all things into confusion, yet 
God will redeem his people." We now then see what the Prophet means 
by saying, Why dost thou now cry? Why dost thou make an uproar? for 
the verb here properly means, not only to cry out, but also to sound 
the trumpet; as though he said, Why do the Jews so much torment 
themselves? There is he says, no doubt, a good reason. 
    And he adds, "Is there no king among thee?" This was doubtless 
the reason why the Jews so much harassed themselves; it was, because 
God had deprived them of their kingdom and of counsel: and we know 
what Jeremiah has said, 'Christ,' that is, the anointed of the Lord, 
'by whose life we breathe, is slain,' (Lam. 4: 20.) Since, then, the 
whole Church derived as it were its life from the safety of its 
king, the faithful could not be otherwise than filled with amazement 
when the kingdom was upset and abolished; for the hope of salvation 
was taken away. "Is there, then, not a king among thee? and have thy 
counselors perished?" Some think that the unfaithfulness of the 
people is here indirectly reproved, because they thought themselves 
to be destitute of the help of God and of his Christ, as though he 
said, - "Have ye forgotten what God has promised to you, that he 
would be your king for ever, and would send the Messiah to rule over 
you? nay, has he not promised that the kingdom of David would be 
perpetual? Whence then, is this fear and trembling, as though God no 
longer reigned in the midst of you, and the throne of David were 
hopelessly overturned?" These interpreters, in confirmation of this 
opinion, say, that Christ is here distinguished by the same title as 
in Isa. 9; where he is called "yo'ets", a counselor. But as in this 
verse, it is the Prophet's design to terrify, and to reprove rather 
than to alleviate the grievousness of evils by consolation; it is 
more probable, that their own destitution is set before the people; 
as though Micah said, "What cause have you for trembling? Is it 
because your king and nil his counselors have been taken away?" But 
what immediately follows proves that this sorrow arose from a just 
cause; it was because they were stripped of all those things which 
had been till that time the evidences of God's favor. 
    Why then "has pain laid hold on thee as on one in travail? Be 
in pain, he says, and groan"; that is, I will not prevent thee to 
grieve and to mourn; as though he said, "Certainly even the 
strongest cannot look on calamities so dreadful, without suffering 
the heaviest sorrow; but though God may for a time subject his 
children to the greatest tortures, and expose them to the most 
grievous evils, he will yet restore them at length from their 
exile." Thou shalt depart, he says, from the city, and dwell in the 
field: thou shalt come even to Babylon; but there thou shalt be 
delivered; there shall Jehovah redeem thee from the hand of thy 
enemies. The import of the whole is, that though God would have a 
care for his people, as he had promised, there was yet no cause for 
the faithful to flatter themselves, as though they were to be exempt 
from troubles; but the Prophet, on the contrary, exhorts them to 
prepare themselves to undergo calamities, as they were not only to 
be ejected from their country, and to wander in strange lands like 
vagrants, but were to be led away into Babylon as to their grave. 
    But to strengthen the minds of the faithful to bear the cross, 
he gives them a hope of deliverance, and says, that God would there 
deliver them, and there redeem them from the hand of their enemies. 
He repeats the adverb, "sham", there, twice, and not without cause: 
for the faithful might have excluded every hope of deliverance, as 
though the gate of God's power had been closed. And this is the 
reason why the Prophet repeats twice, there, there; even from the 
grave he will deliver and redeem thee: "Extend then your hope, not 
only to a small measure of favor, as though God could deliver you 
only from a state of some small danger, but even to death itself. 
Though then ye lay, as it were, in your graves, yet doubt not but 
that God will stretch forth his hand to you, for he will be your 
deliverer. God then in whose power is victory, can overcome many and 
innumerable deaths." 
Grant, Almighty God, that since under the guidance of thy Son we 
have been united together in the body of thy Church, which has been 
so often scattered and torn asunder, - O grant, that we may continue 
in the unity of faith, and perseveringly fight against all the 
temptations of this world, and never deviate from the right course, 
whatever new troubles may daily arise: and though we are exposed to 
many deaths, let us not yet be seized with fear, such as may 
extinguish in our hearts every hope; but may we, on the contrary, 
learn to raise up our eyes and minds, and all our thoughts, to thy 
great power, by which thou quickenest the dead, and raises from 
nothing things which are not, so that though we may be daily exposed 
to ruin, our souls may ever aspire to eternal salvation, until thou 
at length really slowest thyself to be the fountain of life, when we 
shall enjoy that endless felicity, which has beon obtained for us by 
the blood of thy only-begotten Son our Lord. Amen. 

Calvin, Commentary on Micah, Part 9
(continued in part 10...)

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