John Owen, Two Short Catechisms (... continued from file 4) Q6. Is this holiness or obedience in us perfect? A. Yes, in respect of all the 2 Kings 20: 3; Job 1: l; parts of it, Matt. 5: 48; Luke 1: 6; 2 Cor. 7: l; Eph. 4: 24; Tit. 2: 12. Merit of works in unprofitable servants, no way able to do their duty, is a Popish miracle. but not in respect of the Isa 64: 6; Ps. 130: 3; Exod. degrees wherein God requires 28:38; Phil. 3:12. it. Q. 7. Will God accept of that obedience which falls so short of what he requireth? A. Yes, from them whose persons Rom. 12: l; Phil. 4: 18; Heb. he accepteth and justifieth 13: 16; 1 John 3: 22; Eph. freely in Jesus Christ. 1:6. In Christ are our persons accepted freely, and for him our obedience. Q. 8. What are the parts of this holiness? A. Internal, in the quickening Heb. 9: 14; Eph. 3: 16, 17; of all graces, purging act Rom. 2:29, 6:12. sins; and external, in fervent and Matt. 5: 20; Rom. 8:1,2; Eph frequent prayers, alms, and 4: 22, 23; Tit. 2:12. all manner of righteousness. Particular precepts are innumerable. Q. 9. May not others perform these duties acceptably, as well as those that believe? A. No; all their performances in Prov. 15:8; John 9:31; Tit. this kind are but abominable 1:15; Heb. 11:6. sins before the Lord. The best duties of unbelievers are but white sins. Chap. 21. - Of the Privileges of Believers. Q. 1. What are the privileges of those that thus believe and repent? A. First, union with Christ; secondly, adoption of children; thirdly, Christian liberty; fourthly, a spiritual, holy right to the seals of the new covenant; fifthly, communion with all saints; sixthly, resurrection of the body unto life eternal. Q. 2. What is our union with Christ? A. An holy, spiritual 1 Cor. 12:12; John conjunction unto him, 15:l,2,5-7, 17:23. By virtue of this union, Christ suffereth in our afflictions; and we fill up in our bodies what remaineth as his. From Christ, as head of the church, we have spiritual life, sense, and motion, or growth in grace; secondly, as the husband of the church, love and redemption; thirdly, as the foundation thereof, stability and perseverance. as our head, Eph. 4:15, 5:23; Col. 1:18. husband, 2 Cor. 11:2; Eph. 5: 25-27; Rev. 21:9. and foundation, Matt. 16:18; Eph. 2:20-22; 1 Pet. 2:4-7. whereby we are made partakers Rom. 8:9,11; Gal. 4:6; Phil. of the same Spirit with him, 1:19. and derive all good things John 1:12,16; Eph. 1:3. from him. Q. 3. What is our adoption? A. Our gracious reception into John 1: 12; Rom. 8:15,17; the family of God, as his Gal. 4:5; Eph. 1:5. children, and co-heirs with Christ. Q. 4. How come we to know this? A. By the especial working of Rom. 8:15,17; Eph. 4:30; 1 the Holy Spirit in our John 3:l; Rom. 8:19,23; Tit. hearts, sealing unto us the 2:13. promises of God, and raising This is that great honour and up our souls to an assured dignity of believers, which expectation of the promised exalts them to a despising inheritance. all earthly thrones. Q. 5. What is our Christian liberty? A. An holy and spiritual freedom Gal. 5: 1. Our liberty is our inheritance here below, which we ought to contend for, against all opposers. from the slavery of sin, John 8: 32,34,36; Rom. 6:17,18; Isa. 61:1; 1 John 1: 7; 2 Cor. 5: 21. the bondage of death and Rom. 8:15; Heb. 2:15; 1 Cor. hell, 15:55,57. the curse of the law, Gal. 3:13; Eph. 2:15,16; Gal. 4:5; Rom. 8:1. Jewish ceremonies, Acts 15:10,11; Gal. 3,4,5. and thraldom of conscience, 2 Cor. 1:24; 1 Cor. 7: 23; 1 Pet. 2: 16. purchased for us by Jesus 1 Cor. 2:12. Christ, and revealed to us by the Holy Spirit. Q. 6. Are we, then, wholly freed from the moral law? A. Yes, as a covenant, or as it Jer. 31: 31-33; Rom. 7:1-3, has any thing in it bringing 6:14; Gal. 3:19,24; Rom. 8: into bondage, - as the curse, 2; Gal. 5: 18. power, dominion, and rigid Nothing makes men condemn the exaction of obedience; law as a rule, but hatred of that universal holiness which it does require. but not as it is a rule of Matt. 5: 17; Rom. 3:31, life and holiness. 7:13,22,25. Q. 7. Are we not freed by Christ from the magistrate's power and human authority? A. No; being ordained of God, Rom. 13:1-4; 1 Tim. 2:1,2; 1 and commanding for him, we Pet. 2:13-15. owe them act lawful Rule and authority are as obedience. necessary for human society as fire and water for our lives. Chap. 22. - Of the Sacraments of the New Covenant in particular, - a holy right whereunto is the Fourth Privilege of Believers. Q. 1. What are the seals of the New Testament? A. Sacraments instituted of Mark 16:16; John 3:5; Acts Christ to be visible seats 2:38, 22:16; Rom. 4:11; 1 and pledges, whereby God in Cor. 10:2-4, 11:26-29. him confirmeth the promises of the covenant to all believers, re-stipulating of them growth in faith and obedience. Q. 2. How does God by these sacraments bestow grace upon us? A. Not by any real essential Heb. 4:2; 1 Cor. 10; Rom. conveying of spiritual grace 4:11, 1:17; Mark 16:16; Eph. by corporeal means, but by 5: 26. the way of promise, This is one of the greatest obsignation, and covenant, mysteries of the Roman magic confirming the grace wrought and juggling that corporeal in us by the Word and Spirit. elements should have a power to forgive sins, and confer spiritual grace. Q. 3. How do our sacraments differ from the sacraments of the Jews? A. Accidentally only, in things 1 Cor. 10:1,2, 3, &c.; John concerning the outward matter 6:35; 1 Cor. 5: 7; Phil. 3:3; and form, as their number, Col. 2:11. quality, clearness of signification, and the like, - not essentially, in the things signified, or grace confirmed. Chap. 23. - Of Baptism. Q. 1. Which are these sacraments? A. Baptism and the Lord's supper. Q. 2. What is baptism? A. An holy action, appointed of Matt. 28:19; Mark 16:15,16. Christ, whereby being Not the want, but the sprinkled with water in the contempt of this sacrament, name of the whole Trinity, by is damnable. a lawful minister of the It is hard to say whether the church, error of the Papists, requiring baptism of absolute, indispensable necessity to the salvation of every infant, or that of the Anabaptists, debarring them from it altogether, be the most uncharitable. we are admitted into the Acts 2:41, 8:37. family of God, and have the benefits of the Acts 2:38,39; John 3:5; Rom. blood of Christ confirmed 6:3-5; 1 Cor. 12: 13. unto us. Q. 3. To whom does this sacrament belong? A. Unto all to whom the promise Acts 2:39; Gen. 17:11,12; of the covenant is made; that Acts 16:15; Rom. 4:10,11; 1 is, to believers, and to Cor. 7:14. their seed. Q. 4. How can baptism seal the pardon of all sins to us, all our personal sins following it? A. Inasmuch as it is a seal of Acts 2: 39; Rom. 4: 11, 12. that promise which gives pardon of all to believers. Chap. 24. - Of the Lord's Supper. Q. 1. What is the Lord's supper? A. An holy action instituted and Matt. 26: 26-28; Luke 22: 14- appointed by Christ, 20; 1 Cor. 11: 23-25. Baptism is the sacrament of our new birth, this of our farther growth in Christ. to set forth his death, Luke 22:19; 1 Cor. 11: 25, 26. and communicate unto us Mark 14: 22-24; 1 Cor. 11: spiritually his body and 24,25; John 6: 63. blood by faith, being represented by bread l Cor. 11: 23, 25. and wine, blessed by his word, and 1 Cor. 11: 24; Matt. 26: 26. prayer, broken, poured out, and Matt. 26:26; Mark 14:22; Luke received of believers. 22:19. No part of Christian religion was ever so vilely contaminated and abused by profane wretches, as this pure, holy, plain action and institution of our Saviour: witness the Popish horrid monster of transubstantiation, and their idolatrous mass. Q. 2. When did Christ appoint this sacraments? A. On the night wherein he was 1 Cor. 11: 23. betrayed to suffer. Q. 3. Whence is the right lose of it to be learned? A. From the word, practice, and Whatever is more than these, actions of our Saviour, at is of our own. its institution. Q. 4. What were the actions of our Saviour to be imitated by us? A. First, blessing the elements Matt. 26: 26; Mark 14: 22; by prayer; secondly, breaking Luke 22:19,20; 1 Cor. 11: 23, the bread, and pouring out 24. the wine; thirdly, distributing them to the receivers, sitting in a table-gesture. Q. 5. What were the words of Christ? A. First, of command, - "Take, 1 Cor. 11: 24-26. eat;" secondly, of promise, - "This is my body;" thirdly, of institution for perpetual use, - "This do," &c. Q. 6. Who are to be receivers of this sacrament? A. Those only have a true right 1 Cor. 11: 27-29; John 6: 63. to the signs who by faith Faith in God's promise, which have an holy interest in it does confirm, - union with Christ, the thing signified. Christ, whereof it is a seal, - and obedience to the right use of the ordinance itself, - are required of all receivers. There is not any one action pertaining to the spiritual nature of this sacrament, not any end put upon it by Christ, - as, first, the partaking of his body and blood; secondly, setting forth his death for us; thirdly, declaring of our union with him and his, - but requires faith, grace, and holiness, in the receivers. Q. 7. Do the elements remain bread and wine still, after the blessing of them? A. Yes; all the spiritual change John 6: 63; 1 Cor. 10:4, is wrought by the faith of 11:29. the receiver, not the words of the giver: to them that believe, they are the body and blood of Christ. Chap. 25. - Of the Communion of Saints, - the Fifth Privilege of Believers. Q. 1. What is the communion of saints? A. An holy conjunction between Cant. 6: 9; Jer. 32: 39; John all God's people, wrought by 17: 22; 1 Cor. 12: 12; Eph their participation of the 4:3-6,13; 1 John 1:3,6,7. same Spirit, whereby we are By virtue of this, we partake all made members of that one in all the good and evil of body whereof Christ is the the people of God throughout head. the world. Q. 2. Of what sort is this union? A. First, spiritual and 1 Cor. 12:12,13; Eph 2:16, internal, in the enjoyment of 19-22; 1 Cor. 10: 17; John the same Spirit and graces, - 17: 11,21,22; John 10:16; which is the union of the Heb. 1: 11. church catholic; secondly, external and l Cor. 1:10,11; Rom. 12:5; 1 ecclesiastical, in the same Cor. 12: 27,28; Eph 4: 11-13; outward ordinances, - which Phil. 2: 2; Col. 3: 15; 1 is the union of particular Pet. 3: 8. congregations. Chap. 26. - Of Particular Churches. Q. 1. What are particular churches? A. Peculiar assemblies of Acts 11: 26; 1 Cor. 4:17, professors in one place, 11:22; 2 Cor. 1:1. Every corruption does not presently unchurch a people. Unholiness of fellow- worshippers defileth not God's ordinances. under officers of Christ's Acts 20:17,28, 14:23; 2 Cor. institution, 8:23; Heb. 13:17. enjoying the ordinances of l Cor. 3: 6; Rev. 2: 1-3. God, and leading lives be seeming 2 Thess. 3:5,6,11; Gal. 6:16; their holy calling. Phil. 3:17; 1 Thess. 2:12. Q. 2. What are the ordinary officers of such churches? A. First, pastors or doctors, to Rom. 12: 7, 8; Eph. 4: 11; 1 teach and exhort; Cor. 12: 28. Ministers are the bishops of the Lord; lord-bishops came from Rome. secondly, elders, to assist Rom. 12: 8; 1 Tim. 5: 17. in rule and government; thirdly, deacons, to provide Acts 6:2,3. for the poor. Q. 3. What is required of these officers, especially the chiefest, or ministers? A. That they be faithful in the 1 Cor. 4: 2; Acts 20:18-20. ministry committed unto them; sedulous in dispensing the 2 Tim. 2: 15, 4: 1-5. Word; watching for the good of the Tit. 1: 13; 1 Tim. 4: 15, 16. souls committed to them; going before them in an Tit. 2: 7; 1 Tim. 4: 12; example of all godliness and Matt. 5: 16; Acts 24: 16. holiness of life. Q. 4. What is required in the people unto them? A. Obedience to their message 2 Cor. 5: 20; Rom. 6: 17; and ministry; Heb. 13: 17; 2 Thess. 3: 14; Rom. 16: 19; 2 Cor. 10: 4-6. honour and love to their l Cor. 4: l; Gal. 4:14; 1 persons; Tim. 5:17,18. maintenance to them and their Luke 10: 7; James 5: 4; 1 families. Tim. 5: 17, 18; 1 Cor. 9: 9-13. Chap. 27. - Of the Last Privilege of Believers, - being the Door of Entrance into Glory. Q. 1. What is the resurrection of the flesh? A. An act of the mighty power of Job 19:25-27; Ps. 16: 9-11; God's Holy Spirit, applying Isa. 26: 19; Ezek. 37:2,3; unto us the virtue of Dan. 12: 2; 1 Cor. 15: 16, Christ's resurrection, &c; Rev. 20:12,13. whereby, at the last day, he The resurrection of the fresh will raise our whole bodies hereafter is a powerful from the dust, to be united motive to live after the again unto our souls in Spirit here. everlasting happiness. Q. 2. What is the end of this whole dispensation? A. The glory of God in our eternal salvation. To Him be all glory and honour for evermore! Amen. End John Owen, Two Short Catechisms (concluded) --------------------------------------------------- file: /pub/resources/text/ipb-e/epl-09: owcat-5.txt .