John Owen, Two Short Catechisms
(... continued from file 4)

Q6. Is this holiness or obedience in us perfect? 
Yes,  in  respect of all  the  2  Kings  20:  3;  Job  1:  l; 
parts of it,                   Matt.  5:  48; Luke  1:  6;  2 
                               Cor.  7:  l; Eph. 4: 24;  Tit. 
                               2: 12. 
                               Merit     of     works      in 
                               unprofitable servants, no  way 
                               able  to do their duty,  is  a 
                               Popish miracle. 
but  not  in respect  of  the  Isa  64: 6; Ps. 130: 3;  Exod. 
degrees  wherein God requires  28:38; Phil. 3:12. 
Q. 7. Will God accept of that obedience which falls so short of what 
he requireth? 
Yes,  from them whose persons  Rom.  12: l; Phil. 4: 18; Heb. 
he  accepteth and  justifieth  13:  16;  1 John 3:  22;  Eph. 
freely in Jesus Christ.        1:6. 
                               In   Christ  are  our  persons 
                               accepted freely, and  for  him 
                               our obedience. 
Q. 8. What are the parts of this holiness? 
Internal,  in the  quickening  Heb.  9:  14; Eph. 3: 16,  17; 
of  all  graces, purging  act  Rom. 2:29, 6:12. 
and  external, in fervent and  Matt.  5: 20; Rom. 8:1,2;  Eph 
frequent  prayers, alms,  and  4: 22, 23; Tit. 2:12. 
all manner of righteousness.   Particular    precepts     are 
Q.  9.  May not others perform these duties acceptably, as  well  as 
those that believe? 
No; all their performances in  Prov.  15:8; John  9:31;  Tit. 
this  kind are but abominable  1:15; Heb. 11:6. 
sins before the Lord.          The     best     duties     of 
                               unbelievers  are   but   white 
Chap. 21. - Of the Privileges of Believers. 
Q. 1. What are the privileges of those that thus believe and repent? 
First,  union with Christ; secondly, adoption of children;  thirdly, 
Christian liberty; fourthly, a spiritual, holy right to the seals of 
the  new  covenant;  fifthly, communion with  all  saints;  sixthly, 
resurrection of the body unto life eternal. 
Q. 2. What is our union with Christ? 
An       holy,      spiritual  1     Cor.     12:12;     John 
conjunction unto him,          15:l,2,5-7, 17:23. 
                               By   virtue  of  this   union, 
                               Christ   suffereth   in    our 
                               afflictions; and  we  fill  up 
                               in  our  bodies what remaineth 
                               as his. 
                               From  Christ, as head  of  the 
                               church,   we  have   spiritual 
                               life,  sense, and  motion,  or 
                               growth in grace; secondly,  as 
                               the  husband  of  the  church, 
                               love  and redemption; thirdly, 
                               as   the  foundation  thereof, 
                               stability and perseverance. 
as our head,                   Eph. 4:15, 5:23; Col. 1:18. 
husband,                       2  Cor.  11:2; Eph. 5:  25-27; 
                               Rev. 21:9. 
and foundation,                Matt.  16:18; Eph. 2:20-22;  1 
                               Pet. 2:4-7. 
whereby we are made partakers  Rom.  8:9,11; Gal. 4:6;  Phil. 
of the same Spirit with him,   1:19. 
and  derive  all good  things  John 1:12,16; Eph. 1:3. 
from him. 
Q. 3. What is our adoption? 
Our  gracious reception  into  John   1:  12;  Rom.  8:15,17; 
the  family  of God,  as  his  Gal. 4:5; Eph. 1:5. 
children,  and co-heirs  with   
Q. 4. How come we to know this? 
By  the  especial working  of  Rom.  8:15,17;  Eph.  4:30;  1 
the   Holy  Spirit   in   our  John  3:l; Rom. 8:19,23;  Tit. 
hearts, sealing unto  us  the  2:13. 
promises of God, and  raising  This is that great honour  and 
up  our  souls to an  assured  dignity  of  believers,  which 
expectation  of the  promised  exalts  them  to  a  despising 
inheritance.                   all earthly thrones. 
Q. 5. What is our Christian liberty? 
An holy and spiritual freedom  Gal. 5: 1. 
                               Our     liberty     is     our 
                               inheritance here below,  which 
                               we   ought  to  contend   for, 
                               against all opposers. 
from the slavery of sin,       John    8:   32,34,36;    Rom. 
                               6:17,18; Isa. 61:1; 1 John  1: 
                               7; 2 Cor. 5: 21. 
the   bondage  of  death  and  Rom.  8:15; Heb. 2:15; 1  Cor. 
hell,                          15:55,57. 
the curse of the law,          Gal.  3:13; Eph. 2:15,16; Gal. 
                               4:5; Rom. 8:1. 
Jewish ceremonies,             Acts 15:10,11; Gal. 3,4,5. 
and thraldom of conscience,    2  Cor. 1:24; 1 Cor. 7: 23;  1 
                               Pet. 2: 16. 
purchased  for  us  by  Jesus  1 Cor. 2:12. 
Christ, and revealed to us by 
the Holy Spirit. 
Q. 6. Are we, then, wholly freed from the moral law? 
Yes, as a covenant, or as  it  Jer.  31:  31-33; Rom.  7:1-3, 
has  any thing in it bringing  6:14;  Gal. 3:19,24;  Rom.  8: 
into bondage, - as the curse,  2; Gal. 5: 18. 
power,  dominion,  and  rigid  Nothing makes men condemn  the 
exaction of obedience;         law  as a rule, but hatred  of 
                               that  universal holiness which 
                               it does require. 
but  not  as it is a rule  of  Matt.   5:   17;  Rom.   3:31, 
life and holiness.             7:13,22,25. 
Q.  7.  Are  we not freed by Christ from the magistrate's power  and 
human authority? 
No;  being ordained  of  God,  Rom.  13:1-4; 1 Tim. 2:1,2;  1 
and  commanding for  him,  we  Pet. 2:13-15. 
owe     them    act    lawful  Rule  and  authority  are   as 
obedience.                     necessary  for  human  society 
                               as  fire  and  water  for  our 
Chap. 22. - Of the Sacraments of the New Covenant in particular, - a 
holy right whereunto is the Fourth Privilege of Believers. 
Q. 1. What are the seals of the New Testament? 
Sacraments   instituted    of  Mark  16:16;  John  3:5;  Acts 
Christ  to  be visible  seats  2:38,  22:16;  Rom.  4:11;   1 
and  pledges, whereby God  in  Cor. 10:2-4, 11:26-29. 
him  confirmeth the  promises 
of   the   covenant  to   all 
believers, re-stipulating  of 
them  growth  in  faith   and 
Q. 2. How does God by these sacraments bestow grace upon us? 
Not  by  any  real  essential  Heb.  4:2;  1  Cor.  10;  Rom. 
conveying of spiritual  grace  4:11,  1:17; Mark 16:16;  Eph. 
by  corporeal means,  but  by  5: 26. 
the     way    of    promise,  This  is  one of the  greatest 
obsignation,  and   covenant,  mysteries  of the Roman  magic 
confirming the grace  wrought  and  juggling  that  corporeal 
in us by the Word and Spirit.  elements should have  a  power 
                               to  forgive  sins, and  confer 
                               spiritual grace. 
Q. 3. How do our sacraments differ from the sacraments of the Jews? 
Accidentally only, in  things  1  Cor.  10:1,2, 3, &c.;  John 
concerning the outward matter  6:35; 1 Cor. 5: 7; Phil.  3:3; 
and  form,  as their  number,  Col. 2:11. 
quality,     clearness     of 
signification, and the  like, 
-  not  essentially,  in  the 
things  signified,  or  grace 
Chap. 23. - Of Baptism. 
Q. 1. Which are these sacraments? 
Baptism and the Lord's supper. 
Q. 2. What is baptism? 
An  holy action, appointed of  Matt. 28:19; Mark 16:15,16. 
Christ,     whereby     being  Not    the   want,   but   the 
sprinkled with water  in  the  contempt  of  this  sacrament, 
name of the whole Trinity, by  is damnable. 
a   lawful  minister  of  the  It  is hard to say whether the 
church,                        error    of    the    Papists, 
                               requiring      baptism      of 
                               absolute,        indispensable 
                               necessity to the salvation  of 
                               every  infant, or that of  the 
                               Anabaptists,  debarring   them 
                               from  it  altogether,  be  the 
                               most uncharitable. 
we   are  admitted  into  the  Acts 2:41, 8:37. 
family of God, 
and  have the benefits of the  Acts  2:38,39; John 3:5;  Rom. 
blood   of  Christ  confirmed  6:3-5; 1 Cor. 12: 13. 
unto us.                        
Q. 3. To whom does this sacrament belong? 
Unto  all to whom the promise  Acts   2:39;  Gen.   17:11,12; 
of the covenant is made; that  Acts  16:15; Rom.  4:10,11;  1 
is,  to  believers,  and   to  Cor. 7:14. 
their seed. 
Q.  4.  How can baptism seal the pardon of all sins to us,  all  our 
personal sins following it? 
Inasmuch as it is a  seal  of  Acts 2: 39; Rom. 4: 11, 12. 
that   promise  which   gives 
pardon of all to believers. 
Chap. 24. - Of the Lord's Supper. 
Q. 1. What is the Lord's supper? 
An holy action instituted and  Matt. 26: 26-28; Luke 22:  14- 
appointed by Christ,           20; 1 Cor. 11: 23-25. 
                               Baptism  is  the sacrament  of 
                               our  new  birth, this  of  our 
                               farther growth in Christ. 
to set forth his death,        Luke  22:19;  1 Cor.  11:  25, 
and   communicate   unto   us  Mark  14:  22-24; 1  Cor.  11: 
spiritually  his   body   and  24,25; John 6: 63. 
blood by faith, 
being  represented  by  bread  l Cor. 11: 23, 25. 
and wine, 
blessed  by  his  word,   and  1 Cor. 11: 24; Matt. 26: 26. 
broken,   poured   out,   and  Matt. 26:26; Mark 14:22;  Luke 
received of believers.         22:19. 
                               No  part of Christian religion 
                               was     ever     so     vilely 
                               contaminated  and  abused   by 
                               profane   wretches,  as   this 
                               pure,  holy, plain action  and 
                               institution  of  our  Saviour: 
                               witness   the  Popish   horrid 
                               monster                     of 
                               transubstantiation, and  their 
                               idolatrous mass. 
Q. 2. When did Christ appoint this sacraments? 
On  the night wherein he  was  1 Cor. 11: 23. 
betrayed to suffer. 
Q. 3. Whence is the right lose of it to be learned? 
From the word, practice,  and  Whatever  is more than  these, 
actions  of  our Saviour,  at  is of our own. 
its institution. 
Q. 4. What were the actions of our Saviour to be imitated by us? 
First,  blessing the elements  Matt.  26:  26; Mark  14:  22; 
by prayer; secondly, breaking  Luke 22:19,20; 1 Cor. 11:  23, 
the  bread,  and pouring  out  24. 
the       wine;      thirdly, 
distributing  them   to   the 
receivers,   sitting   in   a 
Q. 5. What were the words of Christ? 
First,  of command, -  "Take,  1 Cor. 11: 24-26. 
eat;" secondly, of promise, - 
"This  is  my body;" thirdly, 
of  institution for perpetual 
use, - "This do," &c. 
Q. 6. Who are to be receivers of this sacrament? 
Those  only have a true right  1 Cor. 11: 27-29; John 6: 63. 
to  the  signs who  by  faith  Faith  in God's promise, which 
have  an  holy  interest   in  it  does confirm, - union with 
Christ, the thing signified.   Christ, whereof it is a  seal, 
                               -  and  obedience to the right 
                               use  of  the ordinance itself, 
                               -    are   required   of   all 
                               There  is  not any one  action 
                               pertaining  to  the  spiritual 
                               nature of this sacrament,  not 
                               any   end  put  upon   it   by 
                               Christ,   -  as,  first,   the 
                               partaking  of  his  body   and 
                               blood;    secondly,    setting 
                               forth   his  death   for   us; 
                               thirdly,  declaring   of   our 
                               union with him and his, -  but 
                               requires  faith,  grace,   and 
                               holiness, in the receivers. 
Q.  7.  Do  the  elements  remain bread and wine  still,  after  the 
blessing of them? 
Yes; all the spiritual change  John   6:  63;  1  Cor.  10:4, 
is  wrought by the  faith  of  11:29. 
the  receiver, not the  words 
of  the  giver: to them  that 
believe,  they are  the  body 
and blood of Christ. 
Chap.  25.  -  Of the Communion of Saints, - the Fifth Privilege  of 
Q. 1. What is the communion of saints? 
An  holy  conjunction between  Cant. 6: 9; Jer. 32: 39;  John 
all God's people, wrought  by  17:  22;  1 Cor. 12:  12;  Eph 
their  participation  of  the  4:3-6,13; 1 John 1:3,6,7. 
same  Spirit, whereby we  are  By  virtue of this, we partake 
all  made members of that one  in  all  the good and evil  of 
body  whereof Christ  is  the  the  people  of God throughout 
head.                          the world. 
Q. 2. Of what sort is this union? 
First,     spiritual      and  1  Cor.  12:12,13;  Eph  2:16, 
internal, in the enjoyment of  19-22;  1  Cor. 10:  17;  John 
the same Spirit and graces, -  17:   11,21,22;  John   10:16; 
which  is  the union  of  the  Heb. 1: 11. 
church catholic; 
secondly,    external     and  l  Cor. 1:10,11; Rom. 12:5;  1 
ecclesiastical, in  the  same  Cor.  12: 27,28; Eph 4: 11-13; 
outward  ordinances, -  which  Phil.  2:  2; Col.  3:  15;  1 
is  the  union of  particular  Pet. 3: 8. 
Chap. 26. - Of Particular Churches. 
Q. 1. What are particular churches? 
Peculiar    assemblies     of  Acts  11:  26;  1  Cor.  4:17, 
professors in one place,       11:22; 2 Cor. 1:1. 
                               Every   corruption  does   not 
                               presently unchurch a people. 
                               Unholiness     of      fellow- 
                               worshippers    defileth    not 
                               God's ordinances. 
under  officers  of  Christ's  Acts  20:17,28, 14:23; 2  Cor. 
institution,                   8:23; Heb. 13:17. 
enjoying  the  ordinances  of  l Cor. 3: 6; Rev. 2: 1-3. 
and  leading lives be seeming  2  Thess. 3:5,6,11; Gal. 6:16; 
their holy calling.            Phil. 3:17; 1 Thess. 2:12. 
Q. 2. What are the ordinary officers of such churches? 
First, pastors or doctors, to  Rom.  12: 7, 8; Eph. 4: 11;  1 
teach and exhort;              Cor. 12: 28. 
                               Ministers  are the bishops  of 
                               the  Lord;  lord-bishops  came 
                               from Rome. 
secondly,  elders, to  assist  Rom. 12: 8; 1 Tim. 5: 17. 
in rule and government; 
thirdly, deacons, to  provide  Acts 6:2,3. 
for the poor. 
Q.  3.  What is required of these officers, especially the chiefest, 
or ministers? 
That they be faithful in  the  1 Cor. 4: 2; Acts 20:18-20. 
ministry committed unto them; 
sedulous  in  dispensing  the  2 Tim. 2: 15, 4: 1-5. 
watching for the good of  the  Tit. 1: 13; 1 Tim. 4: 15, 16. 
souls committed to them; 
going   before  them  in   an  Tit.  2:  7;  1  Tim.  4:  12; 
example of all godliness  and  Matt. 5: 16; Acts 24: 16. 
holiness of life. 
Q. 4. What is required in the people unto them? 
Obedience  to  their  message  2  Cor.  5:  20; Rom.  6:  17; 
and ministry;                  Heb.  13: 17; 2 Thess. 3:  14; 
                               Rom. 16: 19; 2 Cor. 10: 4-6. 
honour  and  love  to   their  l  Cor.  4:  l; Gal.  4:14;  1 
persons;                       Tim. 5:17,18. 
maintenance to them and their  Luke  10:  7; James  5:  4;  1 
families.                      Tim.  5:  17, 18;  1  Cor.  9: 
Chap. 27. - Of the Last Privilege of Believers, - being the Door  of 
Entrance into Glory. 
Q. 1. What is the resurrection of the flesh? 
An act of the mighty power of  Job  19:25-27; Ps.  16:  9-11; 
God's  Holy Spirit,  applying  Isa.  26:  19;  Ezek.  37:2,3; 
unto   us   the   virtue   of  Dan.  12:  2; 1 Cor.  15:  16, 
Christ's        resurrection,  &c; Rev. 20:12,13. 
whereby, at the last day,  he  The  resurrection of the fresh 
will  raise our whole  bodies  hereafter   is   a    powerful 
from  the dust, to be  united  motive   to  live  after   the 
again   unto  our  souls   in  Spirit here. 
everlasting happiness. 
Q. 2. What is the end of this whole dispensation? 
The glory of God in our eternal salvation. 
To Him be all glory and honour for evermore! Amen. 

John Owen, Two Short Catechisms

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