Owen, Justification
The doctrine of Justification by Faith,
through the Imputation of the Righteousness of Christ;
explained, confirmed, and vindicated

by John Owen

Search the Scriptures--John 5:29


     Prefatory Note

     To the Reader

      General Considerations, previous unto the Explanation of the
      Doctrine of Justification

First, The general nature of justification--State of the person to
     be justified antecedently thereunto, Rom.4:5; 3:19; 1:32;
     Gal.3:10; John 3:18,36; Gal.3:22--The sole inquiry on that
     state--Whether it be any thing that is our own inherently, or
     what is only imputed unto us, that we are to trust unto for
     our acceptance with God--The sum of this inquiry--The proper
     ends of teaching and learning the doctrine of justification--
     Things to be avoided therein

Secondly, A due consideration of God, the Judge of all, necessary
     unto the right stating and apprehension of the doctrine of
     justification, Rom.8:33; Isa.43:25; 45:25; Ps.143:2; Rom.3:20-
     -What thoughts will be ingenerated hereby in the minds of men,
     Isa.33:14; Micah 6:6,7; Isa.6:5--The plea of Job against his
     friends, and before God, not the same, Job 40:3-5, 43:406--
     Directions for visiting the sick given of old--Testimonies of
     Jerome and Ambrose--Sense of men in their prayers, Dan.9:7,18;
     Ps.143:2, 130:3,4--Paraphrase of Austin on that place--Prayer
     of Pelagius--Public liturgies

Thirdly, A due sense of our apostasy from God, the depravation of
     our nature thereby, with the power and guilt of sin, the
     holiness of the law, necessary unto a right understanding of
     the doctrine of justification--Method of the apostle to this
     purpose, Rom.1,2,3-- Grounds of the ancient and present
     Pelagianism, in the denial of these things--Instances thereof-
     -Boasting of perfection from the same ground--Knowledge of sin
     and grace mutually promote each other

Fourthly, Opposition between works and grace, as unto justification-
     -Method of the apostle, in the Epistle to the Romans, to
     manifest this opposition--A scheme of others contrary
     thereunto--Testimonies witnessing this opposition--Judgment to
     be made on them--Distinctions whereby they are evaded--The
     uselessness of them--Resolution of the case in hand by
     Bellarmine, Dan.9:18; Luke 17:10

Fifthly, A commutation as unto sin and righteousness, by
     imputation, between Christ and believers, represented in the
     Scripture--The ordinance of the scapegoat, Lev.16:21,22--The
     nature of expiatory sacrifices, Lev.4:29, etc.--Expiation of
     an uncertain murder, Deut.21:1-9--The commutation intended
     proved and vindicated, Isa.53:5,6; 2 Cor.5:21; Rom.8:3,4;
     Gal.3:13,14; 1 Pet.2:24; Deut.21:23--Testimonies of Justin
     Martyr, Gregory Nyseen, Augustine, Chrysostom, Bernard,
     Taulerus, Pighius, to that purpose--The proper actings of
     faith with respect thereunto, Rom.5:11; Matt.11:28; Ps.38:4;
     Gen.4:13; Isa.53:11; Gal.3:1; Isa.45:22; John 3:14,15--A bold
     calumny answered

Sixthly, Introduction of grace by Jesus Christ into the whole of
     our relation unto God, and its respect unto all the parts of
     our obedience--No mystery of grace in the covenant of works--
     All religion originally commensurate unto reason--No notions
     of natural light concerning the introduction of the mediation
     of Christ and mystery of grace, into our relation to God,
     Eph.1:17-19--Reason, as corrupted, can have no notions of
     religion but what are derived from its primitive state--Hence
     the mysteries of the gospel esteemed folly--Reason, as
     corrupted, repugnant unto the mystery of grace--Accommodation
     of spiritual mysteries unto corrupt reason, wherefore
     acceptable unto many--Reasons of it--Two parts of corrupted
     nature's repugnancy unto the mystery of the gospel:--1. That
     which would reduce it unto the private reason of men--Thence
     the Trinity denied, and the incarnation of the Son of God;
     without which the doctrine of justification cannot stand--Rule
     of the Socinians in the interpretation of the Scripture--2.
     Want of a due comprehension of the harmony that is between all
     the parts of the mystery of grace--This harmony proved--
     Compared with the harmony in the works of nature--To be
     studied--But it is learned only of them who are taught of God;
     and in experience--Evil effects of the want of a due
     comprehension hereof--Instances of them--All applied unto the
     doctrine of justification

Seventhly, General prejudices against the imputation of the
     righteousness of Christ: --1. That it is not in terms found in
     the Scripture, answered--2. That nothing is said of it in the
     writings of the evangelists, answered, John 20:30,31--Nature
     of Christ's personal ministry--Revelations by the Holy Spirit
     immediately from Christ--Design of the writings of the
     evangelists--3. Differences among Protestants themselves about
     this doctrine, answered--Sense of the ancients herein--What is
     of real difference among Protestants, considered

Eighthly, Influence of the doctrine of justification into the first
     Reformation--Advantages unto the world by that Reformation--
     State of the consciences of men under the Papacy, with respect
     unto justification before God--Alterations made therein by the
     light of this doctrine, though not received--Alterations in
     the Pagan unbelieving world by the introduction of
     Christianity--Design and success of the first reformers herein-
     -Attempts for reconciliation with the Papists in this
     doctrine, and their success--Remainders of the ignorance of
     the truth in the Roman church--Unavoidable consequences of the
     corruption of this doctrine

     I. Justifying faith; the causes and object of it declared
     Justification by faith generally acknowledged--The meaning of 
     it perverted--The nature and use of faith in justification
     proposed to consideration--Distinctions about it waived--A
     twofold faith of the gospel expressed in the Scripture--Faith
     that is not justifying, Acts 8:13; John 2:23,24; Luke 8:13;
     Matt.7:22,23--Historical faith; whence it is so called, and
     the nature of it--Degrees of assent in it--Justification not
     ascribed unto any degree of it--A calumny obviated--The causes
     of true saving faith--Conviction of sin previous unto it--The
     nature of legal conviction, and its effects--Arguments to
     prove it antecedent unto faith--Without the consideration of
     it, the true nature of faith not to be understood--The order
     and relation of the law and gospel, Rom.1:17--Instance of Adam-
     -Effects of conviction--Internal: Displicency and sorrow; fear
     of punishment; desire of deliverance--External: Abstinence
     from sin; performance of duties; reformation of life--Not
     conditions of justification; not formal disposition unto it;
     not moral preparations for it--The order of God in
     justification--The proper object of justifying faith--Not all
     divine verity equally; proved by sundry arguments--The pardon
     of our own sins, whether the first object of faith--The Lord
     Christ in the work of mediation, as the ordinance of God for
     the recovery of lost sinners, the proper object of justifying
     faith--The position explained and proved, Acts 10:43; 16:31;
     4:12; Luke 24:25-27; John 1:12; 3:16,36; 6:29,47; 7:38; Acts
     26:18; Col.2:6; Rom.3:24,25; 1 Cor.1:30; 2 Cor.5:21;
     Eph.1:7,8; 2 Cor.5:19

     II. The nature of justifying faith
     The nature of justifying faith in particular, or of faith 
     in the exercise of it, whereby we are justified--The heart's
     approbation of the way of the justification and salvation of
     sinners by Christ, with its acquiescency therein--The
     description given, explained and confirmed:--1. From the
     nature of the gospel--Exemplified in its contrary, or the
     nature of unbelief, Prov.1:30; Heb.2:3; 1 Pet.2:7; 1
     Cor.1:23,24; 2 Cor.4:3--What it is, and wherein it does
     consist.--2. The design of God in and by the gospel--His own
     glory his utmost end in all things--The glory of his
     righteousness, grace, love, wisdom, etc.--The end of God in
     the way of the salvation of sinners by Christ, Rom.3:25; John
     3:16; 1 John 3:16; Eph.1:5,6; 1 Cor.1:24; Eph.3:10; Rom.1:16;
     4:16; Eph.3:9; 2 Cor.4:6--3. The nature of faith thence
     declared--Faith alone ascribes and gives this glory to God.--
     4. Order of the acts of faith, or the method in believing--
     Convictions previous thereunto--Sincere assent unto all divine
     revelations, Acts 26:27--The proposal of the gospel unto that
     end, Rom.10:11-17; 2 Cor.3:18,etc.--State of persons called to
     believe--Justifying faith does not consist in any one single
     habit or act of the mind or will--The nature of that about
     which is the first act of faith--Approbation of the way of
     salvation by Christ, comprehensive of the special nature of
     justifying faith--What is included there in:--1. A
     renunciation of all other ways, Hos.14:2,3; Jer.3:23;
     Ps.71:16; Rom.10:3.--2. Consent of the will unto this way,
     John 14:6--3. Acquiescency of the heart in God, 1 Pet.1:21.--
     4. Trust in God.--5. Faith described by trust--The reason of
     it--Nature and object of this trust inquired into--A double
     consideration of special mercy--Whether obedience be included
     in the nature of faith, or be of the essence of it--A sincere
     purpose of universal obedience inseparable from faith--How
     faith alone justifies--Repentance, how required in and unto
     justification--How a condition of the new covenant--
     Perseverance in obedience is so also--Definitions of faith

      III. The use of faith in justification; its especial object
           farther cleared
     Use of faith in justification; various conceptions about it--
     By whom asserted as the instrument of it; by whom denied--In 
     what sense it is affirmed so to be--The expressions of the
     Scripture concerning the use of faith in justification; what
     they are, and how they are best explained by an instrumental
     cause--Faith, how the instrument of God in justification--How
     the instrument of them that do believe--The use of faith
     expressed in the Scripture by apprehending, receiving;
     declared by an instrument--Faith, in what sense the condition
     of our justification--Signification of that term, whence to be

     IV. Of justification; the notion and signification of the 
         Word in Scripture 
     The proper sense of these words, justification, and to 
     justify, considered--Necessity thereof--Latin derivation of
     justification--Some of the ancients deceived by it --From
     "jus", and "justum"; "justus filius", who--The Hebrew
     "hitsdik"--Use and signification of it--Places where it is
     used examined, 2 Sam.15:4; Deut.25:1; Prov.17:15; Isa.5:23;
     50:8,9; 1 Kings 8:31,32; 2 Chron.6:22,23; Ps.82:3; Exod.23:7;
     Job 27:5; Isa.53:11; Gen.44:16; Dan.12:3--The constant sense
     of the word evinced--"Diakaio-oo", use of it in other authors,
     to punish--What it is in the New Testament, Matt.11:19; 12:37;
     Luke 7:29; 10:29; 16:15; 18:14; Acts 13:38,39; Rom.2:13; 3:4--
     Constantly used in a forensic sense--Places seeming dubious,
     vindicated, Rom.8:30; 1 Cor.6:11; Tit.3:5-7; Rev.22:11--How
     often these words, "diakaio-oo" and "dikaioumai", are used in
     the New Testament--Constant sense of this--The same evinced
     from what is opposed unto it, Isa.1:8,9; Prov.17:15;
     Rom.5:116,18; 8:33,34--And the declaration of it in terms
     equivalent, Rom.4:6,11; 5:9,10; 2 Cor.5:20,21; Matt.1:21; Acts
     13:39; Gal.2:16, etc.--Justification in the Scripture,
     proposed under a juridical scheme, and of a forensic title--
     The parts and progress of it--Inferences from the whole
     Distinction of a first and second justification--The whole 
     doctrine of the Roman church concerning justification grounded 
     on this distinction--The first justification, the nature and 
     causes of it, according unto the Romanists--The second 
     justification, what it is in their sense--Solution of the 
     seeming difference between Paul and James, falsely pretended 
     by this distinction--The same distinction received by the 
     Socinians and others--The latter termed by some the continuation      
of our justification--The distinction disproved--Justification 
     considered, either as unto its essence or its manifestation--
     The manifestation of it twofold, initial and final--Initial is
     either unto ourselves or others--No second justification hence
     ensues--Justification before God, legal and evangelical--Their
     distinct natures--The distinction mentioned derogatory to the
     merit of Christ--More in it ascribed unto ourselves than unto
     the blood of Christ, in our justification--The vanity of
     disputations to this purpose--All true justification
     overthrown by this distinction--No countenance given unto this
     justification in the Scripture--The second justification not
     intended by the apostle James--Evil of arbitrary distinctions-
     -Our first justification so described in the Scripture as to
     leave no room for a second--Of the continuation of our
     justification; whether it depend on faith alone, or our
     personal righteousness, inquired--Justification at once
     completed, in all the causes and effects of it, proved at
     large--Believers, upon their justification, obliged unto
     perfect obedience--The commanding power of the law constitutes
     the nature of sin in them who are not obnoxious unto its curse-
     -Future sins, in what sense remitted at our first 
     justification--The continuation of actual pardon, and thereby
     of a justified estate; on what it does depend--Continuation of
     justifications the act of God; whereon it depends in that
     sense--On our part, it depends on faith alone--Nothing
     required hereunto but the application of righteousness imputed-
     -The continuation of our justification is before God--That
     whereon the continuation of our justification depends,
     pleadable before God--This not our personal obedience, proved:-
     -1. By the experience of all believers--2. Testimonies of
     Scripture--3. Examples--The distinction mentioned rejected

     VI. Evangelical personal righteousness, the nature and use of 
         it-- Final judgment, and its respect unto justification
     Evangelical personal righteousness; the nature and use of it--
     Whether there be an angelical justification on our evangelical
     righteousness, inquired into--How this is by some affirmed and
     applauded--Evangelical personal righteousness asserted as the
     condition of our righteousness, or the pardon of sin--Opinion
     of the Socinians--Personal righteousness required in the
     gospel--Believers hence denominated righteous--Not with
     respect unto righteousness habitual, but actual only--Inherent
     righteousness the same with sanctification, or holiness--In
     what sense we may be said to be justified by inherent
     righteousness--No evangelical justification on our personal
     righteousness--The imputation of the righteousness of Christ
     does not depend thereon--None have this righteousness, but
     they are antecedently justified--A charge before God, in all
     justification before God--The instrument of this charge, the
     law or the gospel--From neither of them can we be justified by
     this personal righteousness--The justification pretended
     needless and useless--It has not the nature of any
     justification mentioned in the Scripture, but is contrary to
     all that is so called--Other arguments to the same purpose--
     Sentential justification at the last day--Nature of the last
     judgement--Who shall be then justified --A declaration of
     righteousness, and an actual admission into glory, the whole
     of justification at the last day--The argument that we are
     justified in this life in the same manner, and on the same
     grounds, as we shall be judged at the last day, that judgement
     being according unto works, answered; and the impertinency of
     it declared

     VII. Imputation, and the nature of it; with the imputation of 
          the righteousness of Christ in particular Imputation, and 
     the nature of it--The first express record of justification 
     determines it to be by imputation, Gen.15:6--Reasons of it--The 
     doctrine of imputation cleared by Paul; the occasion of it--
     Maligned and opposed by many--Weight of the doctrine concerning 
     imputation of righteousness, on all hands acknowledged--Judgment      
of the Reformed churches herein, particularly of the church of 
     England--By whom opposed, and on what grounds--Signification of 
     the word--Difference between "reputare" and "imputare"--Imputation    
  of two kinds:--1. Of what was ours antecedently unto that 
     imputation, whether good or evil--Instances in both kinds--Nature     
 of this imputation--The thing imputed by it, imputed for what it       is,
and nothing else. --2. Of what is not ours antecedently unto       that
imputation, but is made so by it--General nature of this
     imputation--Not judging of others to have done what they have
     not done--Several distinct grounds and reasons of this 
     imputation:--1. "Ex justitia"; --(1.) "Propter relationem
     foederalem;"--(2.) "Propter relationem naturalem;"--2. "Ex
     voluntaria sponsione"--Instances, Philem.18; Gen.43:9--
     Voluntary sponsion, the ground of the imputation of sin to
     Christ. --3. "Ex injuria", 1 Kings 1:21. --4. "Ex mera
     gratia," Rom. 4--Difference between the imputation of any
     works of ours, and of the righteousness of God--Imputation of
     inherent righteousness is "ex justitia"--Inconsistency of it
     with that which is "ex mera gratia," Rom.4--Agreement of both
     kinds of imputation--The true nature of the imputation of
     righteousness unto justification explained--Imputation of the
     righteousness of Christ--The thing itself imputed, not the
     effect of it; proved against the Socinians

     VIII. Imputation of the sins of the church unto Christ--Grounds 
           of it--The nature of his suretiship--Causes of the new 
     covenant--Christ and the church one mystical person--Consequents      
thereof Imputation of sin unto Christ--Testimonies of the ancients      
unto that purpose--Christ and the church one mystical person--
     Mistakes about that state and relation--Grounds and reasons of
     the union that is the foundation of this imputation--Christ
     the surety of the new covenant; in what sense, unto what ends-
     -Heb.7:22, opened--Mistakes about the causes and ends of the
     death of Christ--The new covenant, in what sense alone
     procured and purchased thereby --Inquiry whether the guilt of
     our sins was imputed unto Christ--The meaning of the words,
     "guilt," and "guilty"--The distinction of "reatus culpae", and
     "reatus poenae", examined--Act of God in the imputation of the
     guilt of our sins unto Christ--Objections against it answered-
     -The truth confirmed

     IX. The formal cause of justification, or the righteousness on 
         the account whereof believers are justified before God--
         Objections answered
     Principal controversies about justification:--1. Concerning the
     nature of justification, stated--2. Of the formal cause of it-
     -3. Of the way whereby we are made partakers of the benefits
     of the mediation of Christ--What intended by the formal cause
     of justification, declared--The righteousness on the account
     whereof believers are justified before God alone, inquired
     after under these terms--This the righteousness of Christ,
     imputed unto them--Occasions of exceptions and objections
     against this doctrine--General objections examined--Imputation
     of the righteousness of Christ consistent with the free pardon
     of sin, and with the necessity of evangelical repentance--
     Method of God's grace in our justification --Necessity of
     faith unto justification, on supposition of the imputation of
     the righteousness of Christ--Grounds of that necessity--Other
     objections, arising mostly from mistakes of the truth,
     asserted, discussed, and answered

      X. Arguments for justification by the imputation of the
     righteousness of Christ. 
     The first argument from the nature and use of our own personal 
     righteousness Arguments for justification by the imputation of
     the righteousness of Christ--Our own personal righteousness not 
     that on the account whereof we are justified in the sight of God--    
Disclaimed in the Scriptures, as to any such end--The truth
     and reality of it granted--Manifold imperfection accompanying
     it, rendering it unmeet to be a righteousness unto the
     justification of life

      XIV. The exclusion of all sorts of works from an interest in
           justification--What is intended by "the law," and the
           "works" of it, in the epistles of Paul
      All works whatever are expressly excluded from any interest
     in our justification before God--What intended by the works of 
     the law--Not those of the ceremonial law only--Not perfect works
     only, as required by the law of our creation--Not the outward
     works of the law, performed without a principle of faith--Not
     works of the Jewish law--Not works with a conceit of merit--
     Not works only wrought before believing, in the strength of
     our own wills--Works excluded abso1utely from our
     justification, without respect unto a distinction of a first
     and second justification--The true sense of the law in the
     apostolical assertion that none are justified by the works
     thereof--What the Jews understood by the law--Distribution of
     the law under the Old Testament--The whole law a perfect rule
     of all inherent moral or spiritual obedience --What are the
     works of the law, declared from the Scripture, and the
     argument thereby confirmed --The nature of justifying faith
     farther declared

     XV. Faith alone
     Of faith alone

      XVI. The truth pleaded farther confirmed by testimonies of
     Testimonies of Scripture confirming the doctrine of 
     justification by the imputation of the righteousness of 
     Christ--Jer.23:6, exp1sined and indicated

     XVII. Testimonies out of the evangelists considered
     Testimonies out of the evangelists considered--Design of our
     Saviour's sermon on the mount--The purity and penalty of the
     law vindicated by him--Arguments from thence--Luke 18:9-14,
     the parable of the Pharisee and publican explained and applied
     to the present argument--Testimonies out of the gospel by
     John, chap. 1:12; 3:14-18, etc.

     XVIII. The nature of justification as declared in the epistles 
            of St. Paul, in that unto the Romans especially.--Chap. 
            3 [4,5,10; 1 Cor.1:30; 2 Cor.5:21; Gal.2:16; Eph.2:8-10; 
     Testimonies out of the Epistles of Paul the apostle--His design
     in the fifth chapter to the Romans--That design explained at
     large, and applied to the present argument--Chap.3:24-26
     explained, and the true sense of the words vindicated--The
     causes of justification enumerated--Apostolical inference from
     the consideration of them--Chap.4, design of the disputation
     of the apostle therein Analysis of his discourse--Verses 4, 5,
     particularly insisted on; their true sense vindicated--What
     works excluded from the justification of Abraham--Who it is
     that works not--In what sense the ungodly are justified--All
     men ungodly antecedently unto their justification--Faith alone
     the means of justification on our part--Faith itself,
     absolutely considered, not the righteousness that is imputed
     unto us--Proved by sundry arguments Rom.5:l2-21--Boasting excluded    
  in ourselves, asserted in God--The design and sum of the apostle's      
argument--Objection of Socinus removed--Comparison between the two      
Adams, and those that derive from them--Sin entered into the world      --
What sin intended--Death, what it comprises, what intended by 
     it--The sense of these words, "inasmuch," or, "in whom all have
     sinned," cleared and vindicated--The various oppositions used
     by the apostle in this discourse: principally between sin or
     the fall, and the free gift; between the disobedience of the
     one, and the obedience of another; judgment on the one hand,
     and justification unto life on the other--The whole context at
     large explained, and the argument for justification by the
     imputation of the righteousness of Christ, fully confirmed
     Rom.10:3,4, explained and insisted on to the same purpose
     1 Cor.1:30--Christ, how of God made righteousness unto us--
     Answer of Bellarmine unto this testimony removed--That of 
     Socinus disproved--True sense of the words evinced 2 Cor.5:21--
     In what sense Christ knew no sin--Emphasis in that expression--
     How he was made sin for us--By the imputation of sin unto him--
     Mistakes of some about this expression--Sense of the ancients--
     Exception of Bellarmine unto this testimony answered, with other      
reasonings of his to the same purpose--The exceptions of others 
     also removed Gal.2:16 Eph.2:8-10--Evidence of this testimony--
     Design of the apostle from the beginning of the chapter--Method 
     of the apostle in the declaration of the grace of God--Grace 
     alone the cause of deliverance from a state of sin--Things to 
     be observed in the assignation of the causes of spiritual
     deliverances--Grace, how magnified by him--Force of the argument
     and evidence from thence--State of the case here proposed by 
     the apostle--General determination of it, "By grace are ye
     saved"--What is it to be saved, inquired into--The same as to
     be justified, but not exclusively--The causes of our 
     justification declared positively and negatively--The whole 
     secured unto the grace of God by Christ, and our interest 
     therein through faith alone--Works excluded--What works?--Not 
     works of the law of Moses--Not works antecedent unto believing--
     Works of true believers--Not only in opposition to the grace 
     of God, but to faith in us--Argument from those words--Reason
     whereon this exclusion of works is founded--To exclude boasting
     on our part--Boasting, wherein it consists--Inseparable from
     the interest of works in justification--Danger of it--
     Confirmation of this reason, obviating an objection--The objection    
 stated--If we be not justified by works, of what use are they?
     answered Phil.3:8,9--Heads of argument from this testimony--
     Design of the context--Righteousness the foundation of acceptance     
with God--A twofold righteousness considered by the apostle--
     Opposite unto one another, as unto the especial and inquired
     after--Which of these he adhered unto, his own righteousness, or
     the righteousness of God; declared by the apostle with vehemency
     of speech--Reasons of his earnestness herein--The turning
     point whereon he left Judaism--The opposition made unto this
     doctrine by the Jews--The weight of the doctrine, and
     unwillingness of men to receive it--His own sense of sin and
     grace--Peculiar expressions used in this place, for the
     reasons mentioned, concerning Christ; concerning all things
     that are our own--The choice to be made on the case stated,
     whether we will adhere unto our own righteousness, or that of
     Christ's, which are inconsistent as to the end of
     justification--Argument from this place--Exceptions unto this
     testimony, and argument from thence, removed--Our personal
     righteousness inherent, the same with respect unto the law and
     gospel --External righteousness only required by the law, an
     impious imagination--Works wrought before faith only rejected-
     -The exception removed--Righteousness before conversion, not
     intended by the apostle

      XIX. Objections against the doctrine of justification by the
           imputation of the righteousness of Christ--Personal holiness    
       and obedience not obstructed, but furthered by it
     Objections against the doctrine of justification by the imputation    
 of the righteousness of Christ--Nature of these objections--
     Difficulty in discerning aright the sense of some men in this
     argument--Justification by works, the end of all declension
     from the righteousness of Christ--Objections against this
     doctrine derived from a supposition thereof alone--First
     principal objection: Imputed righteousness overthrows the
     necessity of a holy life--This objection, as managed by them
     of the church of Rome, an open calumny--How insisted on by
     some among ourselves--Socinus' fierceness in this charge--His
     foul dishonesty therein--False charges on men's opinions
     making way for the rash condemnation of their persons--
     Iniquity of such censures--The objection rightly stated--
     Sufficiently answered in the previous discourses about the
     nature of faith, and force of the moral law--The nature and
     necessity of evangelical holiness elsewhere pleaded--
     Particular answers unto this objection--All who profess this
     doctrine do not exemplify it in their lives--The most holy
     truths have been abused--None by whom this doctrine is now
     denied exceeds them in holiness by whom it is formerly
     professed, and the power of it attested--The contrary doctrine
     not successful in the reformation of the lives of men--The
     best way to determine this difference--The one objection
     managed against the doctrine of the apostle in his own days--
     Efficacious prejudices against this doctrine in the minds of
     men--The whole doctrine of the apostle liable to be abused--
     Answer of the apostle unto this objection--He never once
     attempts to answer it by declaring the necessity of personal
     righteousness, or good works, unto justification before God--
     He confines the cogency of evangelical motives unto obedience
     only unto believers--Grounds of evangelical holiness asserted
     by him, in compliance with his doctrine of justification:--1
     Divine ordination--Exceptions unto this ground removed--2.
     Answer of the apostle vindicated--The obligation of the law
     unto obedience--Nature of it, and consistency with grace--This
     answer of the apostle vindicated--Heads of other principles
     that might be pleaded to the same purpose

     XX. The doctrine of the apostle James concerning faith and works--    
    Its agreement with that of St Paul
     Seeming difference, no real contradiction, between the apostles
     Paul and James, concerning justification--This granted by all-
     -Reasons of the seeming difference--The best rule of the
     interpretation of places of Scripture wherein there is an
     appearing repugnancy--The doctrine of justification according
     unto that rule principally to be learned from the writings of
     Paul--The reasons of his fulness and accuracy in the teaching

     (continued in part 2...)

     file: /pub/resources/text/ipb-e/epl-02: ownjs-01.txt