(Owen, Justification. part 12) from the design of their discourses where they use it) for impetration or acquisition "quovis modo;"--by any means whatever. But there being no cogent reason to confine the word unto that precise signification, it has given occasion to as great a corruption as has befallen Christian religion. We must, therefore, make use of the best means we have to understand the meaning of this word, and what is intended by it, before we admit of its use in this case. "Conditio," in the best Latin writers, is variously used, answering "katastasis, tuche, axia, aitia, tuntheche", in the Greek; that is, "status, fortuna, dignitas, causa, pactum initum." In which of these significations it is here to be understood is not easy to be determined. In common use among us, it sometimes denotes the state and quality of men,--that is, "katastatis" and "axia"; and sometimes a valuable consideration for what is to be done,--that is, "aitia" or "suntheke". But herein it is applied unto things in great variety; sometimes the principal procuring, purchasing cause is so expressed. As the condition whereon a man lends another a hundred pounds is, that he be paid it again with interest;--the condition whereon a man conveys his land unto another is, that he receive so much money for it: so a condition is a valuable consideration. And sometimes it signifies such things as are added to the principal cause, whereon its operation is suspended;--as a man bequeaths a hundred pounds unto another, on condition that he come or go to such a place to demand it. This is no valuable consideration, yet is the effect of the principal cause, or the will of the testator, suspended thereon. And as unto degrees of respect unto that whereof any thing is a condition, as to purchase, procurement, valuable consideration, necessary presence, the variety is endless. We therefore cannot obtain a determinate sense of this word condition, but from a particular declaration of what is intended by it, wherever it is used. And although this be not sufficient to exclude the use of it from the declaration of the way and manner how we are justified by faith, yet is it so to exclude the imposition of any precise signification of it, any other than is given it by the matter treated of. Without this, every thing is left ambiguous and uncertain whereunto it is applied. For instance, it is commonly said that faith and new obedience are the condition of the new covenant; but yet, because of the ambiguous signification and various use of that term (condition) we cannot certainly understand what is intended in the assertion. If no more be intended but that God, in and by the new covenant, does indispensably require these things of us,--that is, the restipulation of a good conscience towards God, by the resurrection of Christ from the dead, in order unto his own glory, and our full enjoyment of all the benefits of it, it is unquestionably true; but if it be intended that they are such a condition of the covenant as to be by us performed antecedently unto the participation of any grace, mercy, or privilege of it, so as that they should be the consideration and procuring causes of them,--that they should be all of them, as some speak, the reward of our faith and obedience,--it is most false, and not only contrary to express testimonies of Scripture, but destructive of the nature of the covenant itself. If it be intended that these things, though promised in the covenant, and wrought in us by the grace of God, are yet duties required of us, in order unto the participation and enjoyment of the full end of the covenant in glory, it is the truth which is asserted; but if it be said that faith and new obedience--that is, the works of righteousness which we do--are so the condition of the covenant, as that whatever the one is ordained of God as a means of, and in order to such or such an end, as justification, that the other is likewise ordained unto the same end, with the same kind of efficacy, or with the same respect unto the effect, it is expressly contrary to the whole scope and express design of the apostle on that subject. But it will be said that a condition in the sense intended, when faith is said to be a condition of our justification, is no more but that it is "causa sine qua non"; which is easy enough to be apprehended. But yet neither are we so delivered out of uncertainties into a plain understanding of what is intended; for these "causa sine quibus non" may be taken largely or more strictly and precisely. So are they commonly distinguished by the masters in these arts. Those so called, in a larger sense, are all such causes, in any kind of efficiency or merit, as are inferior unto principal causes, and would operate nothing without them; but in conjunction with them, have a real effective influence, physical or moral, into the production of the effect. And if we take a condition to be a "causa sine qua non" in this sense, we are still at a loss what may be its use, efficiency, or merit, with respect unto our justification. If it be taken more strictly for that which is necessarily present, but has no causality in any kind, not that of a receptive instrument, I cannot understand how it should be an ordinance of God. For every thing that he has appointed unto any end, moral or spiritual, has, by virtue of that appointment, either a symbolical instructive efficacy, or an active efficiency, or a rewardable condecency, with respect unto that end. Other things may be generally and remotely necessary unto such an end, so far as it partakes of the order of natural beings, which are not ordinances of God with respect thereunto, and so have no kind of causality with respect unto it, as it is moral or spiritual. So the air we breathe is needful unto the preaching of the word, and consequently a "causa sine qua non" thereof; but an ordinance of God with especial respect thereunto it is not. But every thing that he appoints unto an especial spiritual end, has an efficacy or operation in one or other of the ways mentioned; for they either concur with the principal cause in its internal efficiency, or they operate externally in the removal of obstacles and hindrances that oppose the principal cause in its efficiency. And this excludes all causes "sine quibus non," strictly so taken, from any place among divine ordinances. God appoints nothing for an end that shall do nothing. His sacraments are not "arga semeia" but, by virtue of his institution, do exhibit that grace which they do not in themselves contain. The preaching of the word has a real efficiency unto all the ends of it. So have all the graces and duties that he works in us, and requires of us: by them all are "we made meet for the inheritance of the saints in light;" and our whole obedience, through his gracious appointment, has a rewardable condecency with respect unto eternal life. Wherefore, as faith may be allowed to be the condition of our justification, if no more be intended thereby but that it is what God requires of us that we may be justified; so, to confine the declaration of its use in our justification unto its being the condition of it, when so much as a determinate signification of it cannot be agreed upon, is subservient only unto the interest of unprofitable strife and contention. To close these discourses concerning faith and its use in our justification, some things must yet be added concerning its *especial object*. For although what has been spoken already thereon, in the description of its nature and object in general, be sufficient, in general, to state its especial object also; yet there having been an inquiry concerning it, and debate about it, in a peculiar notion, and under some especial terms, that also must be considered. And this is, Whether justifying faith, in our justification, or its use therein, do respect Christ as a king and prophet, as well as a priest, with the satisfaction that as such he made for us, and that in the same manner, and unto the same ends and purposes? And I shall be brief in this inquiry, because it is but a late controversy, and, it may be, has more of curiosity in its disquisition than of edification in its determination. However, being not, that I know of, under these terms stated in any public confessions of the reformed churches, it is free for any to express their apprehensions concerning it. And to this purpose I say,-- 1. Faith, whereby we are justified, in the receiving of Christ, principally respects his person, for all those ends for which he is the ordinance of God. It does not, in the first place, as it is faith in general, respect his person absolutely, seeing its formal object, as such, is the truth of God in the proposition, and not the thing itself proposed. Wherefore, it so respects and receives Christ as proposed in the promise,--the promise itself being the formal object of its assent. 2. We cannot so receive Christ in the promise, as in that act of receiving him to exclude the consideration of any of his offices; for as he is not at any time to be considered by us but as vested with all his offices, so a distinct conception of the mind to receive Christ as a priest, but not as a king or prophet, is not faith, but unbelief,--not the receiving, but the rejecting of him. 3. In the receiving of Christ for justification formally, our distinct express design is to be justified thereby, and no more. Now, to be justified is to be freed from the guilt of sin, or to have all our sins pardoned, and to have a righteousness wherewith to appear before God, so as to be accepted with him, and a right to the heavenly inheritance. Every believer has other designs also, wherein he is equally concerned with this,--as, namely, the renovation of his nature, the sanctification of his person, and ability to live unto God in all holy obedience; but the things before mentioned are all that he aims at or designs in his applications unto Christ, or his receiving of him unto justification. Wherefore,-- 4. Justifying faith, in that act or work of it whereby we are justified, respects Christ in his priestly office alone, as he was the surety of the covenant, with what he did in the discharge thereof. The consideration of his other office is not excluded, but it is not formally comprised in the object of faith as justifying. 5. When we say that the sacerdotal office of Christ, or the blood of Christ, or the satisfaction of Christ, is that alone which faith respects in justification, we do not exclude, yea, we do really include and comprise, in that assertion, all that depends thereon, or concurs to make them effectual unto our justification. As,-- First, The "free grace" and favour of God in giving of Christ for us and unto us, whereby we are frequently said to be justified, Rom.3:24; Eph.2:8; Tit.3:7. His wisdom, love, righteousness, and power, are of the same consideration, as has been declared. Secondly. Whatever in Christ himself was necessary antecedently unto his discharge of that office, or was consequential thereof, or did necessarily accompany it. Such was his incarnation, the whole course of his obedience, his resurrection, ascension, exaltation, and intercession; for the consideration of all these things is inseparable from the discharge of his priestly office. And therefore is justification either expressly or virtually assigned unto them also, Gen.3:15; 1 John 3:8; Heb. 2:14-16; Rom.4:25; Acts 5:31; Heb.7:27; Rom.8:34. But yet, wherever our justification is so assigned unto them, they are not absolutely considered, but with respect unto their relation to his sacrifice and satisfaction. Thirdly. All the means of the application of the sacrifice and righteousness of the Lord Christ unto us are also included therein. Such is the principal efficient cause thereof, which is the Holy ghost; whence we are said to be "justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God," 1 Cor.6:11; and the instrumental cause thereof on the part of God, which is the "promise of the gospel," Rom.1:17; Gal.3:22,23. It would, therefore, be unduly pretended, that by this assertion we do narrow or straiten the object of justifying faith as it justifies; for, indeed, we assign a respect unto the whole mediatory office of Christ, not excluding the kingly and prophetical parts thereof, but only such a notion of them as would not bring in more of Christ, but much of ourselves, into our justification. And the assertion, as laid down, may be proved,-- (1.) From the experience of all that are justified, or do seek for justification according unto the gospel: for under this notion of seeking for justification, or a righteousness unto justification, they were all of them to be considered, and do consider themselves as "hupodikoi tooi Theooi",--"guilty before God,"--subject, obnoxious, liable unto his wrath in the curse of the law; as we declared in the entrance of this discourse, Rom.3:19. They were all in the same state that Adam was in after the fall, unto whom God proposed the relief of the incarnation and suffering of Christ, Gen.3:15. And to seek after justification, is to seek after a discharge from this woeful state and condition. Such persons have, and ought to have, other designs and desires also. For whereas the state wherein they are antecedent unto their justification is not only a state of guilt and wrath, but such also as wherein, through the depravation of their nature, the power of sin is prevalent in them, and their whole souls are defiled, they design and desire not only to be justified, but to be sanctified also; but as unto the guilt of sin, and the want of a righteousness before God, from which justification is their relief, herein, I say, they have respect unto Christ as "set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood." In their design for sanctification they have respect unto the kingly and prophetical offices of Christ, in their especial exercise; but as to their freedom from the guilt of sin, and their acceptance with God, or their justification in his sight,--that they may be freed from condemnation, that they may not come into judgment,--it is Christ crucified, it is Christ lifted up as the "brazen serpent" in the wilderness, it is the blood of Christ, it is the propitiation that he was and the atonement that he made, it is his bearing their sins, his being made sin and the curse for them, it is his obedience, the end which he put unto sin, and the everlasting righteousness which he brought in, that alone their faith does fix upon and acquiesce in. If it be otherwise in the experience of any, I acknowledge I am not acquainted with it. I do not say that conviction of sin is the only antecedent condition of actual justification; but this it is that makes a sinner "subjectum capax justificationis". No man, therefore, is to be considered as a person to be justified, but he who is actually under the power of the conviction of sin, with all the necessary consequent thereof. Suppose, therefore, any sinner in this condition, as it is described by the apostle, Rom.3, "guilty before God," with his "mouth stopped" as unto any pleas, defenses, or excuses; suppose him to seek after a relief and deliverance out of this estate,--that is, to be justified according to the gospel,--he neither does nor can wisely take any other course than what he is there directed unto by the same apostle, verses 20-20, "Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight; for by the law is the knowledge of sin. But now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets; even the righteousness of God, which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe; for there is no difference: for all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God; being justified freely by his grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus; whom God has set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God." Whence I argue,-- That which a guilty, condemned sinner, finding no hope nor relief from the law of God, the sole rule of all his obedience, does retake himself unto by faith, that he may be delivered or justified,--that is the especial object of faith as justifying. But this is the grace of God alone, through the redemption that is in Christ; or Christ proposed as a propitiation through faith in his blood. Either this is so, or the apostle does not aright guide the souls and consciences of men in that condition wherein he himself does place them. It is the blood of Christ alone that he directs the faith unto of all them that would be justified before God. Grace, redemption, propitiation, all through the blood of Christ, faith does peculiarly respect and fix upon. This is that, if I mistake not, which they will confirm by their experience who have made any distinct observation of the acting of their faith in their justification before God. (2.) The Scripture plainly declares that faith as justifying respects the sacerdotal office and acting of Christ alone. In the great representation of the justification of the church of old, in the expiatory sacrifice, when all their sins and iniquities were pardoned, and their persons accepted with God, the acting of their faith was limited unto the imposition of all their sins on the head of the sacrifice by the high priest, Lev.16. "By his knowledge" (that is, by faith in him) "shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities", Isa.53:11. That alone which faith respects in Christ, as unto the justification of sinners, is his "bearing their iniquities". Guilty, convinced sinners look unto him by faith, as those who were stung with "fiery serpents" did to the "brazen serpent,"--that is, as he was lifted up on the cross, John 3:14,15. So did he himself express the nature and acting of faith in our justification. Rom.3:24,25, "Being justified freely by his grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus: whom God has set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood." As he is a propitiation, as he shed his blood for us, as we have redemption thereby, he is the peculiar object of our faith, with respect unto our justification. See to the same purpose, Rom.5:9,10; Eph.1:7; Col.1:14; Eph.2:13-16; Rom.8:3,4. "He we made sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him," 2 Cor.5:21. That which we seek after in justification, is a participation of the righteousness of God;--to be made the righteousness of God, and that not in ourselves, but in another; that is, in Christ Jesus. And that alone which is proposed unto our faith as the means and cause of it, is his being made sin for us, or a sacrifice for sin; wherein all the guilt of our sins was laid on him, and he bare all our iniquities. This therefore, is its peculiar object herein. And wherever, in the Scripture, we are directed to seek for the forgiveness of sins by the blood of Christ, to receive the atonement, to be justified through the faith of him as crucified, the object of faith in justification is limited and determined. But it may be pleaded, in exception unto the testimonies, that no one of them does affirm that we are justified by faith in the blood of Christ alone, so as to exclude the consideration of the other offices of Christ and their acting from being the object of faith in the same manner and unto the same ends with his sacerdotal office, and what belongs thereunto, or is derived from it. Answer. This exception derives from that common objection against the doctrine of justification by faith alone,--namely, that that exclusive term alone is not found in the Scripture, or in any of the testimonies that are produced for justification by faith. But it is replied, with sufficient evidence of truth, that although the word be not found syllabically used unto this purpose, yet there are exceptive expressions equivalent unto it; as we shall see afterwards. It is so in this particular instance also; for,--First, Where our justification is expressly ascribed unto our faith in the blood of Christ as the propitiation for our sins, unto our believing in him as crucified for us, and it is nowhere ascribed unto our receiving of him as King, Lord, or Prophet, it is plain that the former expressions are virtually exclusive of the latter consideration. Secondly, I do not say that the consideration of the kingly and prophetical offices of Christ is excluded. from our justification, as works are excluded in opposition unto faith and grace: for they are so excluded, as there we are to exercise an act of our minds in their positive rejection, as saying, "Get you hence, you have no lot nor portion in this matter;" but as to these offices of Christ, as to the object of faith as justifying, we say only that they are not included therein. For, so to believe to be justified by his blood, as to exercise a positive act of the mind, excluding a compliance with his other offices, is an impious imagination. (3.) Neither the consideration of these offices themselves, nor any of the peculiar acts of them, is suited to give the souls and consciences of convinced sinners that relief which they seek after in justification. We are not, in this whole cause, to lose out of our eye the state of the person who is to be justified, and what it is he does seek after, and ought to seek after, therein. Now, this is pardon of sin, and righteousness before God alone. That, therefore, which is no way suited to give or tender this relief unto him, is not, nor can be, the object of his faith whereby he is justified, in that exercise of it whereon his justification does depend. This relief, it will be said, is to be had in Christ alone. It is true; but under what consideration? For the whole design of the sinner is, how he may be accepted with God, be at peace with him, have all his wrath turned away, by a propitiation or atonement. Now, this can no otherwise be done but by the acting of some one towards God and with God on his behalf; for it is about the turning away of God's anger, and acceptance with him, that the inquiry is made. It is by the blood of Christ that we are "made nigh," who were "far off," Eph.2:13. By the blood of Christ are we reconciled, who were enemies, verse 16. By the blood of Christ we have redemption, Rom.3:24,25; Eph.1:7; etc. This, therefore, is the object of faith. All the actings of the kingly and prophetical offices of Christ are all of them from God; that is, in the name and authority of God towards us. Not any one of them is towards God on our behalf so as that by virtue of them we should expect acceptance with God. They are all good, blessed, holy in themselves, and of an eminent tendency unto the glory of God in our salvation: yea, they are no less necessary unto our salvation, to the praise of God's grace, than are the atonement for sin and satisfaction which he made; for from them is the way of life revealed unto us, grace communicated, our persons sanctified, and the reward bestowed. Yea, in the exercise of his kingly power does the Lord Christ both pardon and justify sinners. Not that he did as a king constitute the law of justification; for it was given and established in the first promise, and he came to put it in execution, John 3:16; but in the virtue of his atonement and righteousness, imputed unto them, he does both pardon and justify sinners. But they are the acts of his sacerdotal office alone, that respect God on our behalf. Whatever he did on earth with God for the church, in obedience, suffering, and offering up of himself; whatever he does in heaven, in intercession and appearance in the presence of God, for us; it all entirely belongs unto his priestly office. And in these things alone does the soul of a convinced sinner find relief when he seeks after deliverance from the state of sin, and acceptance with God. In these, therefore, alone the peculiar object of his faith, that which will give him rest and peace, must be comprised. And this last consideration is, of itself, sufficient to determine this difference. Sundry things are objected against this assertion, which I shall not here at large discuss, because what is material in any of them will occur on other occasions, where its consideration will be more proper. In general it may be pleaded, that justifying faith is the same with saving faith: nor is it said that we are justified by this or that part of faith, but by faith in general; that is, as taken essentially, for the entire grace of faith. And as unto faith in this sense, not only a respect unto Christ in all his offices, but obedience itself also is included in it; as is evident in many places of the Scripture. Wherefore, there is no reason why we should limit the object of it unto the person of Christ as acting in the discharge of his sacerdotal office, with the effects and fruits thereof. Answer 1. Saving faith and justifying faith, in any believer, are one and the same; and the adjuncts of saving and justifying are but external denominations, from its distinct operations and effects. But yet saving faith does act in a peculiar manner, and is of peculiar use in justification, such as it is not of under any other consideration whatever. Wherefore,--2. Although saving faith, as it is described in general, do ever include obedience, not as its form or essence, but as the necessary effect is included in the cause, and the fruit in the fruit-bearing juice; and is often mentioned as to its being and exercise where there is no express mention of Christ, his blood, and his righteousness, but is applied unto all the acts, duties, and ends of the gospel; yet this proves not at all but that, as unto its duty, place, and acting in our justification, it has a peculiar object. If it could be proved, that where justification is ascribed unto faith, that there it has any other object assigned unto it, as that which it rested in for the pardon of sin and acceptance with God, this objection were of some force; but this cannot be done. 3. This is not to say that we are justified by a part of faith, and not by it as considered essentially; for we are justified by the entire grace of faith, acting in such a peculiar way and manner, as others have observed. But the truth is, we need not insist on the discussion of this inquiry; for the true meaning of it is, not whether any thing of Christ is to be excluded from being the object of justifying faith, or of faith in our justification; but, what in and of ourselves, under the name of receiving Christ as our Lord and King, is to be admitted unto an efficiency or conditionality in that work. As it is granted that justifying faith is the receiving of Christ, so whatever belongs unto the person of Christ, or any office of his, or any acts in the discharge of any office, that may be reduced unto any cause of our justification, the meritorious, procuring, material, formal, or manifesting cause of it, is, so far as it does so, freely admitted to belong unto the object of justifying faith. Neither will I contend with any upon this disadvantageous stating of the question,- -What of Christ is to be esteemed the object of justifying faith, and what is not so? For the thing intended is only this,--Whether our own obedience, distinct from faith, or included in it, and in like manner as faith, be the condition of our justification before God? This being that which is intended, which the other question is but invented to lead unto a compliance with, by a more specious pretence than in itself it is capable of, under those terms it shall be examined, and no otherwise. IV. Of justification; the notion and signification of the Word in Scripture The proper sense of these words, justification, and to justify, considered--Necessity thereof--Latin derivation of justification-- Some of the ancients deceived by it --From "jus", and "justum"; "justus filius", who--The Hebrew "hitsdik"--Use and signification of it--Places where it is used examined, 2 Sam.15:4; Deut.25:1; Prov.17:15; Isa.5:23; 50:8,9; 1 Kings 8:31,32; 2 Chron.6:22,23; Ps.82:3; Exod.23:7; Job 27:5; Isa.53:11; Gen.44:16; Dan.12:3--The constant sense of the word evinced--"Diakaio-oo", use of it in other authors, to punish--What it is in the New Testament, Matt.11:19; 12:37; Luke 7:29; 10:29; 16:15; 18:14; Acts 13:38,39; Rom.2:13; 3:4- -Constantly used in a forensic sense--Places seeming dubious, vindicated, Rom.8:30; 1 Cor.6:11; Tit.3:5-7; Rev.22:11--How often these words, "diakaio-oo" and "dikaioumai", are used in the New Testament--Constant sense of this--The same evinced from what is opposed unto it, Isa.1:8,9; Prov.17:15; Rom.5:116,18; 8:33,34--And the declaration of it in terms equivalent, Rom.4:6,11; 5:9,10; 2 Cor.5:20,21; Matt.1:21; Acts 13:39; Gal.2:16, etc.--Justification in the Scripture, proposed under a juridical scheme, and of a forensic title--The parts and progress of it--Inferences from the whole Unto the right understanding of the nature of justification, the proper sense and signification of these words themselves, justification and to justify, is to be inquired into; for until that is agreed upon, it is impossible that our discourses concerning the thing itself should be freed from equivocation. Take words in various senses, and all may be true that is contradictorily affirmed or denied concerning what they are supposed to signify; and so it has actually fallen out in this case, as we shall see more fully afterwards. Some taking these words in one sense, some in another, have appeared to deliver contrary doctrines concerning the thing itself, or our justification before God, who yet have fully agreed, in what the proper determinate sense or signification of the words does import; and therefore the true meaning of them has been declared and vindicated already by many. But whereas the right stating hereof is of more moment unto the determination of what is principally controverted about the doctrine itself, or the thing signified, than most do apprehend, and something at least remains to be added for the declaration and vindication of the import and only signification of these words in the Scripture, I shall give an account of my observations concerning it with what diligence I can. The Latin derivation and composition of the word "justificatio," would seem to denote an internal change from inherent unrighteousness unto righteousness likewise inherent, by a physical motion and transmutation, as the schoolmen speak; for such is the signification of words of the same composition. So sanctification, mortification, vivification, and the like, do all denote a real internal work on the subject spoken of. Hereon, in the whole Roman school, justification is taken for justifaction, or the making of a man to be inherently righteous, by the infusion of a principle or habit of grace, who was before inherently and habitually unjust and unrighteous. Whilst this is taken to be the proper signification of the word, we neither do nor can speak, ad idem, in our disputations with them about the cause and nature of that justification which the Scripture teaches. And this appearing sense of the word possibly deceived some of the ancients, as Austin in particular, to declare the doctrine of free, gratuitous sanctification, without respect unto any works of our own, under the name of justification; for neither he nor any of them ever thought of a justification before God, consisting in the pardon of our sins and the acceptation of our persons as righteous, by virtue of any inherent habit of grace infused into us, or acted by us. Wherefore the subject-matter must be determined by the scriptural use and signification of these words, before we can speak properly or intelligibly concerning it: for if to justify men in the Scripture, signify to make them subjectively and inherently righteous, we must acknowledge a mistake in what we teach concerning the nature and causes of justification; and if it signify no such thing, all their disputations about justification by the infusion of grace, and inherent righteousness thereon, fall to the ground. Wherefore, all Protestants (and the Socinians all of them comply therein) do affirm, that the use and signification of these words is forensic, denoting an act of jurisdiction. Only the Socinians, and some others, would have it to consist in the pardon of sin only; which, indeed, the word does not at all signify. But the sense of the word is, to assoil, to acquit, to declare and pronounce righteous upon a trial; which, in this case, the pardon of sin does necessarily accompany. "Justificatio" and "justifico" belong not, indeed, unto the Latin tongue, nor can any good author be produced who ever used them, for the making of him inherently righteous, by any means, who was not so before. But whereas these words were coined and framed to signify such things as are intended, we have no way to determine the signification of them, but by the consideration of the nature of the things which they were invented to declare and signify. And whereas, in this language, these words are derived from "jus" and "justum," they must respect an act of jurisdiction rather than a physical operation or infusion. "Justificari" is "justus censeri, pro justo haberi;"--to be esteemed, accounted, or adjudged righteous. So a man was made "justus filius," in adoption, unto him by whom he was adopted, which, what it is, is well declared by Budaeus, Cajus lib.2, F. de Adopt. De Arrogatione loquens: "Is qui adoptat rogatur, id est, interrogatur, an velit eum quem adopturus sit, justum sibi filium esse. Justum", says he, "intelligo, non verum, ut aliqui censent, sed omnibus partibus, ut ita dicam, filiationis, veri filii vicem obtinentem, naturalis et legitimi filii loco sedentem". Wherefore, as by adoption there is no internal inherent change made in the person adopted, but by virtue thereof he is esteemed and adjudged as a true God, and has all the rights of a legitimate son; so by justification, as to the importance of the word, a man is only esteemed, declared, and pronounced righteous, as if he were completely so. And in the present case justification and gratuitous (continued in part 13...) ---------------------------------------------------- file: /pub/resources/text/ipb-e/epl-02: ownjs-12.txt .