(Owen, Justification. part 16) relieve, to say that this personal righteousness is of the free grace and gift of God unto some, and not unto others; for we must plead it as our duty, and not as God's grace. 5. Suppose a person freely justified by the grace of God, through faith in the blood of Christ, without respect unto any works, obedience, or righteousness of his own, we do freely grant,--(1.) That God does indispensably require personal obedience of him; which may be called his evangelical righteousness. (2.) That God does approve of and accept, in Christ, this righteousness so performed. (3.) That hereby that faith whereby we are justified is evidenced, proved, manifested, in the sight of God and men. (4.) That this righteousness is pleadable unto an acquitment against any charge from Satan, the world, or our own consciences. (5.) That upon it we shall be declared righteous at the last day, and without it none shall so be. And if any shall think meet from hence to conclude unto an evangelical justification, or call God's acceptance of our righteousness by that name, I shall by no means contend with then. And wherever this inquiry is made,--not how a sinner, guilty of death, and obnoxious unto the curse, shall be pardoned, acquitted, and justified, which is by the righteousness of Christ alone imputed unto him--but how a man that professes evangelical faith, or faith in Christ, shall be tried, judged, and whereon, as such, he shall be justified, we grant that it is and must be, by his own personal, sincere obedience. And these things are spoken, not with a design to contend with any, or to oppose the opinions of any; but only to remove from the principal question in hand those things which do not belong unto it. A very few words will also free our inquiry from any concernment in that which is called sentential justification, at the day of judgement; for of what nature soever it be, the person concerning whom that sentence is pronounced was,--(1.) Actually and completely justified before God in this world; (2.) Made partaker of all the benefits of that justification, even unto a blessed resurrection in glory: "It is raised in glory", 1 Cor.15:43. (3.) The souls of the most will long before have enjoyed a blessed rest with God, absolutely discharged and acquitted from all their labours and all their sins; there remains nothing but an actual admission of the whole person into eternal glory. Wherefore this judgement can be no more but declaratory, unto the glory of God, and the everlasting refreshment of them that have believed. And without reducing of it unto a new justification, as it is nowhere called in the Scripture, the ends of that solemn judgement,--in the manifestation of the wisdom and righteousness of God, in appointing the way of salvation by Christ, as well as in giving of the law; the public conviction of them by whom the law has been transgressed and the gospel despised; the vindication of the righteousness, power, and wisdom of God in the rule of the world by his providence, wherein, for the most part, his paths unto all in this life are in the deep, and his footsteps are not known; the glory and honour of Jesus Christ, triumphing over all his enemies, then fully made his footstool; and the glorious exaltation of grace in all that do believe, with sundry other things of an alike tendency unto the ultimate manifestation of divine glory in the creation and guidance of all things,--are sufficiently manifest. And hence it appears how little force there is in that argument which some pretend to be of so great weight in this cause. "As every one", they say, "shall be judged of God at the last day, in the same way and manner or on the same grounds, is he justified of God in this life; but by works, and not by faith alone, every one shall be judged at the last day: wherefore by works, and not by faith alone, every one is justified before God in this life". For,-- 1. It is nowhere said that we shall be judged at the last day "ex operibus"; but only that God will render unto men "secundum opera". But God does not justify any in this life "secundum opera"; being justified freely by his grace, and not according to the works of righteousness which we have done. And we are everywhere said to be justified in this life "ex fide", "per fidem", but nowhere "propter fidem"; or, that God justifies us "secundum fidem", by faith, but not for our faith, nor according unto our faith. And we are not to depart from the expressions of the Scripture, where such a difference is constantly observed. 2. It is somewhat strange that a man should be judged at the last day, and justified in this life, just in the same way and manner,-- that is, with respect unto faith and works,--when the Scripture does constantly ascribe our justification before God unto faith without works; and the judgment at the last day is said to be according unto works, without any mention of faith. 3. If justification and eternal judgment proceed absolutely on the same grounds, reasons, and causes, then if men had not done what they shall be condemned for doing at the last day, they should have been justified in this life; but many shall be condemned only for sins against the light of nature, Rom.2:12, as never having the written law or gospel made known unto them: wherefore unto such persons, to abstain from sins against the light of nature would be sufficient unto their justification, without any knowledge of Christ or the gospel. 4. This proposition,--that God pardons men their sins, gives then the adoption of children, with a right unto the heavenly inheritance, according to their works,--is not only foreign to the gospel, but contradictory unto it, and destructive of it, as contrary unto all express testimonies of the Scripture, both in the Old Testament and the New, where these things are spoken of; but that God judges all men, and renders unto all men, at the last judgment, according unto their works, is true, and affirmed in the Scripture. 5. In our justification in this life by faith, Christ is considered as our propitiation and advocate, as he who has made atonement for sin, and brought in everlasting righteousness; but at the last day, and in the last judgment, he is considered only as the judge. 6. The end of God in our justification is the glory of his grace, Eph.1:6; but the end of God in the last judgment is the glory of his remunerative righteousness, 2 Tim.4:8. 7. The representation that is made of the final judgment, Matt.7 and 25, is only of the visible church. And therein the plea of faith, as to the profession of it, is common unto all, and is equally made by all. Upon that plea of faith, it is put unto the trial whether it were sincere, true faith or no, or only that which was dead and barren. And this trial is made solely by the fruits and effects of it; and otherwise, in the public declaration of things unto all, it cannot be made. Otherwise, the faith whereby we are justified comes not into judgment at the last day. See John 5:24, with Mark 16:16. VII. Imputation, and the nature of it; with the imputation of the righteousness of Christ in particular Imputation, and the nature of it--The first express record of justification determines it to be by imputation, Gen.15:6--Reasons of it--The doctrine of imputation cleared by Paul; the occasion of it--Maligned and opposed by many--Weight of the doctrine concerning imputation of righteousness, on all hands acknowledged--Judgment of the Reformed churches herein, particularly of the church of England- -By whom opposed, and on what grounds--Signification of the word-- Difference between "reputare" and "imputare"--Imputation of two kinds:--1. Of what was ours antecedently unto that imputation, whether good or evil--Instances in both kinds--Nature of this imputation--The thing imputed by it, imputed for what it is, and nothing else. --2. Of what is not ours antecedently unto that imputation, but is made so by it--General nature of this imputation- -Not judging of others to have done what they have not done--Several distinct grounds and reasons of this imputation:--1. "Ex justitia"; --(1.) "Propter relationem foederalem;"--(2.) "Propter relationem naturalem;"--2. "Ex voluntaria sponsione"--Instances, Philem.18; Gen.43:9--Voluntary sponsion, the ground of the imputation of sin to Christ. --3. "Ex injuria", 1 Kings 1:21. --4. "Ex mera gratia," Rom. 4--Difference between the imputation of any works of ours, and of the righteousness of God--Imputation of inherent righteousness is "ex justitia"--Inconsistency of it with that which is "ex mera gratia," Rom.4--Agreement of both kinds of imputation--The true nature of the imputation of righteousness unto justification explained--Imputation of the righteousness of Christ--The thing itself imputed, not the effect of it; proved against the Socinians The first express record of the justification of any sinner is of Abraham. Others were justified before him from the beginning, and there is that affirmed of them which sufficiently evidences them so to have been; but this prerogative was reserved for the father of the faithful, that his justification, and the express way and manner of it, should be first entered on the sacred record. So it is, Gen.15:6, "He believed in the LORD, and it was counted unto him for righteousness." "wayachsheveha",--it was "accounted" unto him, or "imputed" unto him, for righteousness. "Elogisthe",--it was "counted, reckoned, imputed." And "it was not written for his sake alone that it was imputed unto him, but for us also, unto whom it shall be imputed if we believe," Rom.4:23,24. Wherefore, the first express declaration of the nature of justification in the Scripture affirms it to be by imputation,--the imputation of somewhat unto righteousness; and this [is] done in that place and instance which is recorded on purpose, as the precedent and example of all those that shall be justified. As he was justified so are we, and no otherwise. Under the New Testament there was a necessity of a more full and clear declaration of the doctrine of it; for it is among the first and most principal parts of that heavenly mystery of truth which was to be brought to light by the gospel. And, besides, there was from the first a strong and dangerous opposition made unto it; for this matter of justification, the doctrine of it, and what necessarily belongs thereunto, was that whereon the Jewish church broke off from God, refused Christ and the gospel, perishing in their sins; as is expressly declared, Rom.9:31; 10:3,4. And, in like manner, a dislike of it, an opposition unto it, ever was, and ever will be, a principle and cause of the apostasy of any professing church from Christ and the gospel that falls under the power and deceit of them; as it fell out afterwards in the churches of the Galatians. But in this state the doctrine of justification was fully declared, stated, and vindicated, by the apostle Paul, in a peculiar manner. And he does it especially by affirming and proving that we have the righteousness whereby and wherewith we are justified by imputation, or, that our justification consists in the non-imputation of sin, and the imputation of righteousness. But yet, although the first-recorded instance of justification,-- and which was so recorded that it might be an example, and represent the justification of all that should be justified unto the end of the world,--is expressed by imputation and righteousness imputed, and the doctrine of it, in that great case wherein the eternal welfare of the church of the Jews, or their ruin, was concerned, is so expressed by the apostle; yet is it so fallen out in our days, that nothing in religion is more maligned, more reproached, more despised, than the imputation of righteousness unto us, or an imputed righteousness. "A putative righteousness, the shadow of a dream, a fancy, a mummery, an imagination," say some among us. An opinion, "foeda, execranda, pernitiosa, detestanta", says Socinus. And opposition arises unto it every day from great variety of principles; for those by whom it is opposed and rejected can by no means agree what to set up in the place of it. However, the weight and importance of this doctrine is on all hands acknowledged, whether it be true or false. It is not a dispute about notions, terms, and speculations, wherein Christian practice is little or not at all concerned (of which nature many are needlessly contended about); but such as has an immediate influence into our whole present duty, with our eternal welfare or ruin. Those by whom this imputation of righteousness is rejected, do affirm that the faith and doctrine of it do overthrow the necessity of gospel obedience, of personal righteousness and good works, bringing in antinomianism and libertinism in life. Hereon it must, of necessity, be destructive of salvation in those who believe it, and conform their practice thereunto. And those, on the other hand, by whom it is believed, seeing they judge it impossible that any man should be justified before God any other way but by the imputation of the righteousness of Christ, do, accordingly, judge that without it none can be saved. Hence a learned man of ]ate concludes his discourse concerning it, "Hactenus de imputatione justitiae Christi; sine qua nemo unquam aut salvtus est, aut slvari queat", Justificat. Paulin. cap. 8;--"Thus far of the imputation of the righteousness of Christ; without which no man was ever saved, nor can any so be." They do not think nor judge that all those are excluded from salvation who cannot apprehend, or do deny, the doctrine of the imputation of the righteousness of Christ, as by them declared; but they judge that they are so unto whom that righteousness is not really imputed: nor can they do otherwise, whilst they make it the foundation of all their own acceptation with God and eternal salvation. These things greatly differ. To believe the doctrine of it, or not to believe it, as thus or thus explained, is one thing; and to enjoy the thing, or not enjoy it, is another. I no way doubt but that many men do receive more grace from God than they understand or will own, and have a greater efficacy of it in them than they will believe. Men may be really saved by that grace which doctrinally they do deny; and they may be justified by the imputation of that righteousness which, in opinion, they deny to be imputed: for the faith of it is included in that general assent which they give unto the truth of the gospel, and such an adherence unto Christ may ensue thereon, as that their mistake of the way whereby they are saved by him shall not defraud them of a real interest therein. And for my part, I must say that notwithstanding all the disputes that I see and read about justification (some whereof are full of offense and scandal), I do not believe but that the authors of them (if they be not Socinians throughout, denying the whole merit and satisfaction of Christ) do really trust unto the mediation of Christ for the pardon of their sins and acceptance with God, and not unto their own works or obedience; nor will I believe the contrary, until they expressly declare it. Of the objection, on the other hand, concerning the danger of the doctrine of the imputation of the righteousness of Christ, in reference unto the necessity of holiness and works of righteousness, we must treat afterwards. The judgment of the Reformed churches herein is known unto all, and must be confessed, unless we intend by vain cavils to increase and perpetuate contentions. Especially the church of England is in her doctrine express as unto the imputation of the righteousness of Christ, both active and passive, as it is usually distinguished. This has been of late so fully manifested out of her authentic writings,--that is, the articles of religion, and books of homilies, and other writings publicly authorized,--that it is altogether needless to give any farther demonstration of it. Those who pretend themselves to be otherwise minded are such as I will not contend withal; for to what purpose is it to dispute with men who will deny the sun to shine, when they cannot bear the heat of its beams? Wherefore, in what I have to offer on this subject, I shall not in the least depart from the ancient doctrine of the church of England; yea, I have no design but to declare and vindicate it, as God shall enable. There are, indeed, sundry differences among persons learned, sober, and orthodox (if that term displease not), in the way and manner of the explication of the doctrine of justification by the imputation of the righteousness of Christ, who yet all of them agree in the substance of it,--in all those things wherein the grace of God, the honour of Christ, and the peace of the souls of men, are principally concerned. As far as it is possible for me, I shall avoid the concerning of myself at present in these differences; for unto what purpose is it to contend about them, whilst the substance of the doctrine itself is openly opposed and rejected? Why should we debate about the order and beautifying of the rooms in a house, whilst fire is set unto the whole? When that is well quenched, we may return to the consideration of the best means for the disposal and use of the several parts of it. There are two grand parties by whom the doctrine of justification by the imputation of the righteousness of Christ is opposed,-- namely, the Papists and the Socinians; but they proceed on different principles, and unto different ends. The design of the one is to exalt their own merits; of the other, to destroy the merit of Christ. But besides these, who trade in company, we have many interlopers, who, coming in on their hand, do make bold to borrow from both as they see occasion. We shall have to do with them all in our progress; not with the persons of any, nor the way and manner of their expressing themselves, but the opinions of all of them, so far as they are opposite unto the truth: for it is that which wise men despise, and good men bewail,--to see persons pretending unto religion and piety, to cavil at expressions, to contend about words, to endeavour the fastening of opinions on men which they own not, and thereon mutually to revile one another, publishing all to the world as some great achievement or victory. This is not the way to teach the truths of the gospel, nor to promote the edification of the church. But, in general, the importance of the cause to be pleaded, the greatness of the opposition that is made unto the truth, and the high concernment of the souls of believers to be rightly instructed in it, do call for a renewed declaration and vindication of it. And what I shall attempt unto this purpose I do it under this persuasion,--that the life and continuance of any church on the one hand, and its apostasy or ruin on the other, do depend in an eminent manner on the preservation or rejection of the truth in this article of religion; and, I shall add, as it has been professed, received, and believed in the church of England in former days. The first thing we are to consider is the meaning of these words, to impute, and imputation; for, from a mere plain declaration hereof, it will appear that sundry things charged on a supposition of the imputation we plead for are vain and groundless, or the charge itself is so. "Chashav", the word first used to this purpose, signifies to think, to esteem, to judge, or to refer a thing or matter unto any; to impute, or to be imputed, for good or evil. See Lev.7:18; 17:4, and Ps.106:31. "Watechashev lo litsdakah"--"And it was counted, reckoned, imputed unto him for righteousness;" to judge or esteem this or that good or evil to belong unto him, to be his. The LXX express it by "logidzoo" and "logidzomai", as do the writers of the New Testament also; and these are rendered by "reputare, imputare, acceptum ferre, tribuere, assignare, ascribere." But there is a different signification among these words: in particular, to be imputed righteous, and to have righteousness imputed, differ, as cause and effect; for that any may be reputed righteous,--that is, be judged or esteemed so to be,-- there must be a real foundation of that reputation, or it is a mistake, and not a right judgment; as a man may be reputed to be wise who is a fool, or reputed to be rich who is a beggar. Wherefore, he that is reputed righteous must either have a righteousness of his own, or another antecedently imputed unto him, as the foundation of that reputation. Wherefore, to impute righteousness unto one that has none of his own, is not to repute him to be righteous who is indeed unrighteous; but it is to communicate a righteousness unto him, that he may rightly and justly be esteemed, judged, or reputed righteous. "Imputare" is a word that the Latin tongue owns in the sense wherein it is used by divines. "Optime de pessimis meruisti, ad quos pervenerit incorrupta rerum fides, magno authori suo imputate", Senec. ad Mart. And Plin., lib. 18 cap. 1, in his apology for the earth, our common parent, "Nostris eam criminibus urgemus, culpamque nostram illi imputamus". In their sense, to impute any thing unto another is, if it be evil, to charge it on him, to burden him with it: so says Pliny, "We impute our own faults to the earth, or charge them upon it." If it be good, it is to ascribe it unto him as his own, whether originally it were so or no: "Magno authori imputate". Vasquez, in Thom. 22, tom. 2: disp. 132, attempts the sense of the word, but confounds it with "reputare:" "Imputare aut reputare quidquam alicui, est idem atque inter ea quae sunt ipsius, et ad eum pertinent, connumerare et recensere". This is "reputare" properly; "imputare" includes an act antecedent unto this accounting or esteeming a thing to belong unto any person. But whereas that may be imputed unto us which is really our own antecedently unto that imputation, the word must needs have a double sense, as it has in the instances given out of Latin authors now mentioned. And,-- 1. To impute unto us that which was really ours antecedently unto that imputation, includes two things in it:--(1.) An acknowledgment or judgment that the thing so imputed is really and truly ours, or in us. He that imputes wisdom or learning unto any man does, in the first place, acknowledge him to be wise or learned. (2.) A dealing with them according unto it, whether it be good or evil. So when, upon a trial, a man is acquitted because he is found righteous; first, he is judged and esteemed righteous, and then dealt with as a righteous person,--his righteousness is imputed unto him. See this exemplified, Gen.30:33. 2. To impute unto us that which is not our own antecedently unto that imputation, includes also in it two things:--(1.) A grant or donation of the thing itself unto us, to be ours, on some just ground and foundation; for a thing must be made ours before we can justly be dealt withal according unto what is required on the account of it. (2.) A will of dealing with us, or an actual dealing with us, according unto that which is so made ours; for in this matter whereof we treat, the most holy and righteous God does not justify any,--that is, absolve them from sin, pronounce them righteous, and thereon grant unto them right and title unto eternal life,--but upon the interveniency of a true and complete righteousness, truly and completely made the righteousness of them that are to be justified in order of nature antecedently unto their justification. But these things will be yet made more clear by instances; and it is necessary they should be so. (1.) There is an imputation unto us of that which is really our own, inherent in us, performed by us, antecedently unto that imputation, and this whether it be evil or good. The rule and nature hereof is given and expressed, Ezek.18:20, "The righteousness of the righteous shall be upon him, and the wickedness of the wicked shall be upon him." Instances we have of both sorts. First, in the imputation of sin when the person guilty of it is so judged and reckoned a sinner as to be dealt withal accordingly. This imputation Shimei deprecated, 2 Sam.19:19. He said unto the king, "Let not my lord impute iniquity unto me,"--"'al-yachashav-li 'adoni 'awon", the word used in the expression of the imputation of righteousness, Gen.15:6,--"neither do thou remember that which thy servant did perversely: for thy servant does know that I have sinned." He was guilty, and acknowledged his guilt; but deprecates the imputation of it in such a sentence concerning him as his sin deserved. So Stephen deprecated the imputation of sin unto them that stoned him, whereof they were really guilty, Acts 7:60, "Lay not this sin to their charge;"--impute it not unto them: as, on the other side, Zechariah the son of Jehoiada, who died in the same cause and the same kind of death with Stephen, prayed that the sin of those which slew him might be charged on them, 2 Chron.24:22. Wherefore to impute sin is to lay it unto the charge of any, and to deal with them according unto its desert. To impute that which is good unto any, is to judge and acknowledge it so to be theirs, and thereon to deal with them in whom it is according unto its respect unto the law of God. The "righteousness of the righteous shall be upon him." So Jacob provided that his "righteousness should answer for him," Gen.30:33. And we have an instance of it in God's dealing with men, Ps.106:30,31, "Then stood up Phinehas and executed judgment; and that was counted unto him for righteousness." Notwithstanding it seemed that he had not sufficient warrant for what he did, yet God, that knew his heart, and what guidance of his own Spirit he was under, approved his act as righteous, and gave him a reward testifying that approbation. Concerning this imputation it must be observed, that whatever is our own antecedently thereunto, which is an act of God thereon, can never be imputed unto us for any thing more or less than what it is really in itself. For this imputation consists of two parts, or two things concur thereunto:--First, A judgment of the thing to be ours, to be in us, or to belong unto us. Secondly, A will of dealing with us, or an actual dealing with us, according unto it. Wherefore, in the imputation of any thing unto us which is ours, God esteems it not to be other than it is. He does not esteem that to be a perfect righteousness which is imperfect; so to do, might argue either a mistake of the thing judged on, or perverseness in the judgment itself upon it. Wherefore, if, as some say, our own faith and obedience are imputed unto us for righteousness, seeing they are imperfect, they must be imputed unto us for an imperfect righteousness, and not for that which is perfect; for that judgment of God which is according unto truth is in this imputation. And the imputation of an imperfect righteousness unto us, esteeming it only as such, will stand us in little stead in this matter. And the acceptilation which some plead (traducing a fiction in human laws to interpret the mystery of the gospel) does not only overthrow all imputation, but the satisfaction and merit of Christ also. And it must be observed, that this imputation is a mere act of justice, without any mixture of grace; as the apostle declares, Rom.11:6. For it consists of these two parts:--First, An acknowledging and judging that to be in us which is truly so; Secondly, A will of dealing with us according unto it: both which are acts of justice. (2.) The imputation unto us of that which is not our own antecedently unto that imputation, at least not in the same manner as it is afterwards, is various also, as unto the grounds and causes that it proceeds upon. Only it must be observed, that no imputation of this kind is to account them unto whom anything is imputed to have done the things themselves which are imputed unto them. That were not to impute, but to err in judgment, and, indeed, utterly to overthrow the whole nature of gracious imputation. But it is to make that to be ours by imputation which was not ours before, unto all ends and purposes whereunto it would have served if it had been our own without any such imputation. It is therefore a manifest mistake of their own which some make the ground of a charge on the doctrine of imputation. For they say, "If our sins were imputed unto Christ, then must he be esteemed to have done what we have done amiss, and so be the greatest sinner that ever was;" and on the other side, "If his righteousness be imputed unto us, then are we esteemed to have done what he did, and so to stand in no need of the pardon of sin." But this is contrary unto the nature of imputation, which proceeds on no such judgment; but, on the contrary, that we ourselves have done nothing of what is imputed unto us, nor Christ any thing of what was imputed unto him. To declare more distinctly the nature of this imputation, I shall consider the several kinds of it, or rather the several grounds whence it proceeds. For this imputation unto us of what is not our own antecedent unto that imputation, may be either,--1. "Ex justitia;" or, 2. "Ex voluntaria sponsione;" or, 3. "Ex injuria; or, 4. "Ex gratia;"--all which shall be exemplified. I do not place them thus distinctly, as if they might not some of them concur in the same imputation, which I shall manifest that they do; but I shall refer the several kinds of imputation unto that which is the next cause of every one. 1. Things that are not our own originally, personally, inherently, may yet be imputed unto us "ex justitia," by the rule of righteousness. And this may be done upon a double relation unto those whose they are:--(1.) Federal. (2.) Natural. (1.) Things done by one may he imputed unto others, "propter relationem foederalem",--because of a covenant relation between them. So the sin of Adam was and is imputed unto all his posterity; as we shall afterward more fully declare. And the ground hereof is that we stood all in the same covenant with him, who was our head and representative therein. The corruption and depravation of nature which we derive from Adam is imputed unto us with the first kind, of imputation,--namely, of that which is ours antecedently unto that imputation: but his actual sin is imputed unto us as that which becomes ours by that imputation; which before it was not. Hence, says Bellarmine himself, "Peccatum Adami ita posteris omnibus imputatur, ac si omnes idem peccatum patravissent", De Amiss. Grat., lib.4 cap.10;--"The sin of Adam is so imputed unto all his posterity, as if they had all committed the same sin." And he gives us herein the true nature of imputation, which he fiercely disputes against in his books on justification. For the imputation of that sin unto us, as if we had committed it, which he acknowledges, includes both a transcription of that sin unto us, and a dealing with us as if we had committed it; which is the doctrine of the apostle, Rom.5. (2) There is an imputation of sin unto others, "ex justitia propter relationem naturalem",--on the account of a natural relation between them and those who had actually contracted the guilt of it. But this is so only with respect unto some outward, temporary effects of it. So God speaks concerning the children of the rebellious Israelites in the wilderness, "Your children shall wander in the wilderness forty years, and bear your whoredoms," Numb.14:33;- -"Your sin shall be so far imputed unto your children, because of their relation unto you, and your interest in them, as that they shall suffer for them in an afflictive condition in the wilderness." And this was just because of the relation between them; as the same procedure of divine justice is frequently declared in other places of the Scripture. So, where there is a due foundation of it, imputation is an act of justice. 2. Imputation may justly ensue "ex voluntaria sponsione,"--when one freely and willingly undertakes to answer for another. An illustrious instance hereof we have in that passage of the apostle unto Philemon in the behalf of Onesimus, verse 18, "If he has wronged thee, or ows thee ought" ("touto emoi ellogei"), "impute it unto me,--put it on my account." He supposes that Philemon might have a double action against Onesimus. (1.) "Injuriarum," of wrongs: "Ei de ti edikese se"--If he has dealt unjustly with thee, or by thee, if he has so wronged thee as to render himself obnoxious unto punishment." (2.) "Damni", or of loss: "E ofeilei"--"If he ows thee ought, be a debtor unto thee;" which made him liable to payment or restitution. In this state the apostle interposes himself by a voluntary sponsion, to undertake for Onesimus: "I Paul have written it with my own hand," "Egoo apotisoo"--"I Paul will answer for the whole." And this he did by the transcription of both the debts of Onesimus unto himself; for the crime was of that nature as might be taken away by compurgation, being not capital. And the imputation of them unto him was made just by his voluntary undertaking of them. "Account me," says he, "the person that has done these things; and I will make satisfaction, so that nothing be charged on Onesimus." So Judas voluntarily undertook unto Jacob for the safety of Benjamin, and obliged himself unto perpetual guilt in case of failure, Gen.43:9, "I will be surety for him; of my hand shalt thou require him: if I bring him not unto thee, and set him before thee," "wechata'ti lecha kol-hayamim",--"I will sin," or "be a sinner before thee always,"--be guilty, and, as we say, bear the blame. So he expresses himself again unto Joseph, chap.44:32. It seems this is the nature and office of a surety; what he undertakes for is justly to be required at his hand, as if he had been originally and personally concerned in it. And this voluntary sponsion was one (continued in part 17...) ---------------------------------------------------- file: /pub/resources/text/ipb-e/epl-02: ownjs-16.txt .