(Owen, Justification. part 28) it unto their own practice. The reader may see an eminent demonstration hereof in a late excellent treatise, whose title is, "The Practical Divinity of the Papists Discovered to be Destructive of Christianity and men's Souls." The spirituality of the law, with the severity of its sanction, extending itself unto the least and most imperceptible motions of sin in the heart, are not believed, or not aright considered, by them who plead for justification by works in any sense. Wherefore, the principal design of the sermon of our Saviour is, as to declare what is the nature of that obedience which God requires by the law, so to prepare the minds of his disciples to seek after another righteousness, which, in the cause and means of it, was not yet plainly to be declared, although many of them, being prepared by the ministry of John, did hunger and thirst after it. But he sufficiently intimates wherein it did consist, in that he affirms of himself that he "came to fulfill the law," verse 17. What he came for, that he was sent for; for as he was sent, and not for himself, "he was born to us, given unto us". This was to fulfill the law, that so the righteousness of it might be fulfilled in us. And if we ourselves cannot fulfill the law, in the proper sense of its commands (which yet is not to be abolished but established, as our Saviour declares); if we cannot avoid the curse and penalty of it upon its transgression; and if he came to fulfill it for us (all which are declared by himself);--then is his righteousness, even that] which he wrought for us in fulfilling the law, the righteousness wherewith we are justified before God. And whereas here is a twofold righteousness proposed unto us--one in the fulfilling of the law by Christ; the other in our own perfect obedience unto the law, as the sense of it is by him declared; and other middle righteousness between them there is none,--it is left unto the consciences of convinced sinners whether of these they will adhere and trust unto; and their direction herein is the principal design we ought to have in the declaration of this doctrine. I shall pass by all those places wherein the foundations of this doctrine are surely laid, because it is not expressly mentioned in them; but such they are as, in their proper interpretation, do necessarily infer it. Of this kind are they all wherein the Lord Christ is said to die for us or in our stead, to lay down his life a ransom for us or in our stead, and the like; but I shall pass them by, because I will not digress at all from the present argument. But the representation made by our Saviour himself of the way and means whereon and whereby men come to be justified before God, in the parable of the Pharisee and the publican, is a guide unto all men who have the same design with them. Luke 18:9-14: "And he spake this parable unto certain which trusted in themselves that they were righteous, and despised others: Two men went up into the temple to pray; the one a Pharisee, and the other a publican. The Pharisee stood and prayed thus with himself, God, I thank thee, that I am not as other men are, extortioners, unjust, adulterers, or even as this publican. I fast twice in the week, I give tithes of all that I possess. And the publican, standing afar off, would not lift up so much as his eyes unto heaven, but smote upon his breast, saying, God be merciful unto me, a sinner. I tell you, that this man went down unto his house justified rather than the other: for every one that exalteth himself shall be abased; and every one that humbleth himself shall be exalted." That the design of our Saviour herein was to represent the way of our justification before God is evident,--1. From the description given of the persons whom he reflected on, verse 9. They were such as "trusted in themselves that they were righteous;" or that they had a personal righteousness of their own before God. 2. From the general rule wherewith he confirms the judgment he had given concerning the persons described: "Every one that exalteth himself shall be abased; and he that humbleth himself shall be exalted," verse 14. As this is applied unto the Pharisee, and the prayer that is ascribed unto him, it declares plainly that every plea of our own works, as unto our justification before God, under any consideration, is a self-exaltation which God despises; and, as applied unto the publican, that a sense of sin is the only preparation on our part for acceptance with him on believing. Wherefore, both the persons are represented as seeking to be justified; for so our Saviour expresses the issue of their address unto God for that purpose: the one was justified, the other was not. The plea of the Pharisee unto this end consists of two parts:--1. That he had fulfilled the condition whereon he might be justified. He makes no mention of any merit, either of congruity or condignity. Only, whereas there were two parts of God's covenant then with the church, the one with respect unto the moral, the other with respect unto the ceremonial law, he pleads the observation of the condition of it in both parts, which he shows in instances of both kinds: only he adds the way that he took to farther him in this obedience, somewhat beyond what was enjoined,--namely, that he fasted twice in the week; for when men begin to seek for righteousness and justification by works, they quickly think their best reserve lies in doing something extraordinary, more than other men, and more, indeed, than is required of them. This brought forth all the pharisaical austerities in the Papacy. Nor can it be said that all this signified nothing, because he was a hypocrite and a boaster; for it will be replied that it should seem all are so who seek for justification by works; for our Saviour only represents one that does so. Neither are these things laid in by against his justification, but only that he "exalted himself" in "trusting unto his own righteousness." 2. In an ascription of all that he did unto God: "God, I thank thee." Although he did all this, yet he owned the aid and assistance of God by his grace in it all. He esteemed himself much to differ from other men; but ascribed it not unto himself that so he did. All the righteousness and holiness which he laid claim unto, he ascribed unto the benignity and goodness of God. Wherefore, he neither pleaded any merit in his works, nor any works performed in his own strength, without the aid of grace. All that he pretends is, that by the grace of God he had fulfilled the condition of the covenant; and thereon expected to be justified. And whatever words men shall be pleased to make use of in their vocal prayers, God interprets their minds according to what they trust in, as unto their justification before him. And if some men will be true unto their own principles, this is the prayer which, "mutates mutandis," they ought to make. If it be said, that it is charged on this Pharisee that he "trusted in himself," and "despised others," for which he was rejected; I answer, --1. This charge respects not the mind of the person, but the genius and tendency of the opinion. The persuasion of justification by works includes in it a contempt of other men; for "if Abraham had been justified by works, he should have had whereof to glory." 2. Those whom he despised were such as placed their whole trust in grace and mercy,--as this publican. It were to be wished that all others of the same mind did not so also. The issue is, with this person, that he was not justified; neither shall any one ever be so on the account of his own personal righteousness. For our Saviour has told us, that when we have done all (that is, when we have the testimony of our consciences unto the integrity of our obedience), instead of pleading it unto our justification, we should say (that is, really judge and profess) that we are "douloi achreioi",--" unprofitable servants," Luke 17:10: as the apostle speaks, "I know nothing by myself; yet am I not hereby justified," 1 Cor.4:4. And he that is "doulos achreios", and has nothing to trust unto but his service, will be cast out of the presence of God, Matt.25:30. Wherefore, on the best of our obedience, to confess ourselves "douloi achreioi", is to confess that, after all, in ourselves, we deserve to be cast out of the presence of God. In opposition hereunto, the state and prayer of the publican, under the same design of seeking justification before God, are expressed. And the outward acts of his person are mentioned, as representing and expressive of the inward frame of his mind: "He stood afar off," and "did not so much as lift up his eyes;" he "smote upon his breast." All of them represent a person desponding, yea, despairing in himself. This is the nature, this is the effect, of that conviction of sin which we before asserted to be antecedently necessary unto justification. Displicency, sorrow, sense of danger, fear of wrath,--all are present with him. In brief he declares himself guilty before God, and his mouth stopped as unto any apology or excuse. And his prayer is a sincere application of his soul unto sovereign grace and mercy, for a deliverance out of the condition wherein he was by reason of the guilt of sin. And in the use of the word; "hilaskomai", there is respect had unto a propitiation. In the whole of his address there is contained,--1. Self-condemnation and abhorrence. 2. Displicency and sorrow for sin. 3. A universal renunciation of all works of his own, as any condition of his justification. 4. An acknowledgment of his sin, guilt, and misery. And this is all that, on our part, is required unto justification before God, excepting that faith whereby we apply ourselves unto him for deliverance. Some make a weak attempt from hence to prove that justification consists wholly in the remission of sin, because, on the prayer of the publican for mercy and pardon, he is said to be "justified:" but there is no force in this argument; for,--1. The whole nature of justification is not here declared, but only what is required on our part whereunto. The respect of it unto the mediation of Christ was not yet expressly to be brought to light; as was showed before. 2. Although the publican makes his address unto God under a deep sense of the guilt of sin, yet he prays not for the bare pardon of sin, but for all that sovereign mercy or grace God has provided for sinners. 3. The term of justification must have the same sense when applied unto the Pharisee as when applied unto the publican; and if the meaning of it with respect unto the publican be, that he was pardoned, then has it the same sense with respect unto the Pharisee,- -he was not pardoned. But he came on no such errand. He came to be justified, not pardoned; nor does he make the least mention of his sin, or any sense of it. Wherefore, although the pardon of sin be included in justification, yet to justify, in this place, has respect unto a righteousness whereon a man is declared just and righteous; wrapped up, on the part of the publican, in the sovereign producing cause,--the mercy of God. Some few testimonies may be added out of the other evangelist, in whom they abound: "As many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name," John 1:12. Faith is expressed by the receiving of Christ; for to receive him, and to believe on his name, are the same. It receives him as set forth of God to be a propitiation for sin, as the great ordinance of God for the recovery and salvation of lost sinners. Wherefore, this notion of faith includes in it,--l. A supposition of the proposal and tender of Christ unto us, for some end and purpose. 2. That this proposal is made unto us in the promise of the gospel. Hence, as we are said to recede Christ, we are said to receive the promise also. 3. The end for which the Lord Christ is so proposed unto us in the promise of the gospel; and this is the same with that for which he was so proposed in the first promise,--namely, the recovery and salvation of lost sinners. 4. That in the tender of his person, there is a tender made of all the fruits of his mediation, as containing the way and means of our deliverance from sin and acceptance with God. 5. There is nothing required on our part unto an interest in the end proposed, but receiving of him, or believing on his name. 6. Hereby are we entitled unto the heavenly inheritance; we have power to become the sons of God, wherein our adoption is asserted, and justification included. What this receiving of Christ is, and wherein it does consist, has been declared before, in the consideration of that faith whereby we are justified. That which hence we argue is, that there is no more required unto the obtaining of a right and title unto the heavenly inheritance, but faith alone in the name of Christ, the receiving of Christ as the ordinance of God for justification and salvation. This gives us, I say, our original right thereunto, and therein our acceptance with God, which is our justification; though more be required unto the actual acquisition and possession of it. It is said, indeed, that other graces and works are not excluded, though faith alone be expressed. But every thing which is not a receiving of Christ is excluded. It is, I say, virtually excluded, because it is not of the nature of that which is required. When we speak of that whereby we see, we exclude no other member from being a part of the body; but we exclude all but the eye from the act of seeing. And if faith be required, as it is a receiving of Christ, every grace and duty which is not so is excluded, as unto the end of justification. Chap.3:14-18, "And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up; that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal life. For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the world through him might be saved. He that believeth on him is not condemned; but he that believeth not is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God." I shall observe only a few things from these words, which in themselves convey a better light of understanding in this mystery unto the minds of believers than many long discourses of some learned men:--1. It is of the justification of men, and their right to eternal life thereon, that our Saviour discourses. This is plain in verse 18, "He that believeth on him is not condemned; but he that believeth not is condemned already." 2. The means of attaining this condition or state on our part is believing only, as it is three times positively asserted, without any addition. 3. The nature of this faith is declared,--(1.) By its object,--that is, Christ himself, the Son of God, "Whosoever believeth in him;" which is frequently repeated. (2.) The especial consideration wherein he is the object of faith unto the justification of life; and that is as he is the ordinance of God, given, sent, and proposed, from the love and grace of the Father: "God so loved the world, that he gave;" "God sent his Son." (3.) The especial act yet included in the type, whereby the design of God in him is illustrated; for this was the looking unto the brazen serpent lifted up in the wilderness by them who were stung with fiery serpents. Hereunto our faith in Christ unto justification does answer, and includes a trust in him alone for deliverance and relief. This is the way, these are the only causes and means, of the justification of condemned sinners, and are the substance of all that we plead for. It will be said, that all this proves not the imputation of the righteousness of Christ unto us, which is the thing principally inquired after; but if nothing be required on our part unto justification but faith acted on Christ, as the ordinance of God for our recovery and salvation, it is the whole of what we plead for. A justification by the remission of sins alone, without a righteousness giving acceptance with God and a right unto the heavenly inheritance, is alien unto the Scripture and the common notion of justification amongst men. And what this righteousness must be, upon a supposition that faith only on our part is required unto a participation of it, is sufficiently declared in the words wherein Christ himself is so often asserted as the object of our faith unto that purpose. Not to add more particular testimonies, which are multiplied unto the same purpose in this evangelist, the sum of the doctrine declared by him is, "That the Lord Jesus Christ was 'the Lamb of God which taketh away the sin of the world;' that is, by the sacrifice of himself, wherein he answered and fulfilled all the typical sacrifices of the law: that unto this end he sanctified himself, that those who believe might be sanctified, or perfected forever, by his own offering of himself: that in the gospel he is proposed as lifted up and crucified for us, as bearing all our sins in his body on the tree: that by faith in him we have adoption, justification, freedom from judgment and condemnation, with a right and title unto eternal life: that those who believe not are condemned already, because they believe not on the Son of God; and, as he elsewhere expresseth it, 'make God a liar,' in that they believe not his testimony, namely, that 'he has given unto us eternal life, and that this life is in his Son."' Nor does he anywhere make mention of any other means, cause, or condition of justification on our part but faith only, though he abounds in precepts unto believers for love, and keeping the commands of Christ. And this faith is the receiving of Christ in the sense newly declared; and this is the substance of the Christian faith in this matter; which ofttimes we rather obscure than illustrate, by debating the consideration of any thing in our justification but the grace and love of God, the person and mediation of Christ, with faith in them. XVIII. The nature of justification as declared in the epistles of St. Paul, in that unto the Romans especially.--Chap. 3 [4,5,10; 1 Cor.1:30; 2 Cor.5:21; Gal.2:16; Eph.2:8-10; Phil.3:8,9.] Testimonies out of the Epistles of Paul the apostle--His design in the fifth chapter to the Romans--That design explained at large, and applied to the present argument--Chap.3:24-26 explained, and the true sense of the words vindicated--The causes of justification enumerated--Apostolical inference from the consideration of them-- Chap.4, design of the disputation of the apostle therein Analysis of his discourse--Verses 4, 5, particularly insisted on; their true sense vindicated--What works excluded from the justification of Abraham--Who it is that works not--In what sense the ungodly are justified--All men ungodly antecedently unto their justification-- Faith alone the means of justification on our part--Faith itself, absolutely considered, not the righteousness that is imputed unto us- -Proved by sundry arguments Rom.5:l2-21--Boasting excluded in ourselves, asserted in God--The design and sum of the apostle's argument--Objection of Socinus removed--Comparison between the two Adams, and those that derive from them--Sin entered into the world--What sin intended--Death, what it comprises, what intended by it--The sense of these words, "inasmuch," or, "in whom all have sinned," cleared and vindicated-- The various oppositions used by the apostle in this discourse: principally between sin or the fall, and the free gift; between the disobedience of the one, and the obedience of another; judgment on the one hand, and justification unto life on the other--The whole context at large explained, and the argument for justification by the imputation of the righteousness of Christ, fully confirmed Rom.10:3,4, explained and insisted on to the same purpose 1 Cor.1:30--Christ, how of God made righteousness unto us--Answer of Bellarmine unto this testimony removed--That of Socinus disproved-- True sense of the words evinced 2 Cor.5:21--In what sense Christ knew no sin--Emphasis in that expression--How he was made sin for us--By the imputation of sin unto him--Mistakes of some about this expression--Sense of the ancients--Exception of Bellarmine unto this testimony answered, with other reasonings of his to the same purpose--The exceptions of others also removed Gal.2:16 Eph.2:8-10--Evidence of this testimony--Design of the apostle from the beginning of the chapter--Method of the apostle in the declaration of the grace of God--Grace alone the cause of deliverance from a state of sin--Things to be observed in the assignation of the causes of spiritual deliverances--Grace, how magnified by him--Force of the argument and evidence from thence-- State of the case here proposed by the apostle--General determination of it, "By grace are ye saved"--What is it to be saved, inquired into--The same as to be justified, but not exclusively--The causes of our justification declared positively and negatively--The whole secured unto the grace of God by Christ, and our interest therein through faith alone--Works excluded--What works?--Not works of the law of Moses--Not works antecedent unto believing--Works of true believers--Not only in opposition to the grace of God, but to faith in us--Argument from those words--Reason whereon this exclusion of works is founded--To exclude boasting on our part--Boasting, wherein it consists--Inseparable from the interest of works in justification--Danger of it--Confirmation of this reason, obviating an objection--The objection stated--If we be not justified by works, of what use are they? answered Phil.3:8,9--Heads of argument from this testimony--Design of the context--Righteousness the foundation of acceptance with God--A twofold righteousness considered by the apostle--Opposite unto one another, as unto the especial and inquired after--Which of these he adhered unto, his own righteousness, or the righteousness of God; declared by the apostle with vehemency of speech--Reasons of his earnestness herein--The turning point whereon he left Judaism--The opposition made unto this doctrine by the Jews--The weight of the doctrine, and unwillingness of men to receive it--His own sense of sin and grace--Peculiar expressions used in this place, for the reasons mentioned, concerning Christ; concerning all things that are our own--The choice to be made on the case stated, whether we will adhere unto our own righteousness, or that of Christ's, which are inconsistent as to the end of justification--Argument from this place--Exceptions unto this testimony, and argument from thence, removed--Our personal righteousness inherent, the same with respect unto the law and gospel --External righteousness only required by the law, an impious imagination--Works wrought before faith only rejected--The exception removed--Righteousness before conversion, not intended by the apostle That the way and manner of our justification before God, with all the causes and means of it, are designedly declared by the apostle in the Epistle to the Romans, chap.3,4,5, as also vindicated from objections, so as to render his discourse thereon the proper seat of this doctrine, and whence it is principally to be learned, cannot modestly be denied. The late exceptions of some, that this doctrine of justification by faith without works is found only in the writings of St. Paul, and that his writings are obscure and intricate, are both false and scandalous to Christian religion, so as that, in this place, we shall not afford them the least consideration. He wrote "hupo Pneumatos hagiou feromenos",--as he was "moved by the Holy Ghost." And as all the matter delivered by him was sacred truth, which immediately requires our faith and obedience, so the way and manner wherein he declared it was such as the Holy Ghost judged most expedient for the edification of the church. And as he said himself with confidence, that if the gospel which he preached, and as it was preached by him, though accounted by them foolishness, was hid, so as that they could not understand nor comprehend the mystery of it, it was "hid unto them that are lost;" so we may say, that if what he delivers in particular concerning our justification before God seems obscure, difficult, or perplexed unto us, it is from our prejudices, corrupt affections, or weakness of understanding at best, not able to comprehend the glory of this mystery of the grace of God in Christ, and not from any defect in his way and manner of the revelation of it. Rejecting, therefore, all such perverse insinuations, in a due sense of our own weakness, and acknowledgment that at best we know but in part, we shall humbly inquire into the blessed revelation of this great mystery of the justification of a sinner before God, as by him declared in those chapters of his glorious Epistle to the Romans; and I shall do it with all briefness possible, so as not, on this occasion, to repeat what has been already spoken, or to anticipate what may be spoken in place more convenient. The first thing he does is to prove all men to be under sin, and to be guilty before God. This he gives as the conclusion of his preceding discourse, from chap.1:18, or what he had evidently evinced thereby, chap.3:19,23. Hereon an inquiry does arise, how any of them come to be justified before God? And whereas justification is a sentence upon the consideration of a righteousness, his grand inquiry is, what that righteousness is, on the consideration whereof a man may be so justified? And concerning this, he affirms expressly that it is not the righteousness of the law, nor of the works of it; whereby what he does intend has been in part before declared, and will be farther manifested in the process of our discourse. Wherefore, in general, he declares that the righteousness whereby we are justified is the righteousness of God, in opposition unto any righteousness of our own, chap.1:17; 3:21,22. And he describes this righteousness of God by three properties:--1. That it is "choris nomou",--"without the law," verse 21; separated in all its concerns from the law; not attainable by it, nor any works of it, which they have no influence into. It is neither our obedience unto the law, nor attainable thereby. Nor can any expression more separate and exclude the works of obedience unto the law from any concernment in it than this does. Wherefore, whatever is, or can be, performed by ourselves in obedience unto the law, is rejected from any interest in this righteousness of God, or the procurement of it to be made ours. 2. That yet it "is witnessed unto by the law," verse 21: "The law and the prophets." The apostle, by this distinction of the books of the Old Testament into "the law and the prophets," manifests that by the "law" he understands the books of Moses. And in them testimony is given unto this righteousness of God four ways:-- (1.) By a declaration of the causes of the necessity of it unto our justification. This is done in the account given of our apostasy from God, of the loss of his image, and the state of sin that ensued thereon; for hereby an end was put unto all possibility and hope of acceptance with God by our own personal righteousness. By the entrance of sin our own righteousness went out of the world; so that there must be another righteousness prepared and approved of God, and called "the righteousness of God," in opposition unto our own, or all relation of love and favour between God and man must cease forever. (2.) In the way of recovery from this state, generally declared in the first promise of the blessed seed, by whom this righteousness of God was to be wrought and introduced; for he alone was "to make an end of sin, and to bring in everlasting righteousness," "tsedek 'olamim", Dan.9:24; that righteousness of God that should be the means of the justification of the church in all ages, and under all dispensations. (3.) By stopping up the way unto any other righteousness, through the threatening of the law, and that curse which every transgression of it was attended withal. Hereby it was plainly and fully declared that there must be such a righteousness provided for our justification before men as would answer and remove that curse. (4.) In the prefiguration and representation of that only way and means whereby this righteousness of God was to be wrought. This it did in all its sacrifices, especially in the great anniversary sacrifice on the day of expiation, wherein all the sins of the church were laid on the head of the sacrifice, and so carried away. 3. He describes it by the only way of our participation of it, the only means on our part of the communication of it unto us. And this is by faith alone: "The righteousness of God which is by the faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe; for there is no difference," Rom.3:22. Faith in Christ Jesus is so the only way and means whereby this righteousness of God comes upon us, or is communicated unto us, that it is so unto all that have this faith, and only unto them; and that without difference on the consideration of any thing else besides. And although faith, taken absolutely, may be used in various senses, yet, as thus specified and limited, the faith of Christ Jesus, or, as he calls it, "the faith that is in me," Acts 26:18, it can intend nothing but the reception of him, and trust in him, as the ordinance of God for righteousness and salvation. This description of the righteousness of God revealed in the gospel, which the apostle asserts as the only means and cause of our justification before God, with the only way of its participation and communication unto us, by the faith of Christ Jesus, fully confirms the truth we plead for. For if the righteousness wherewith we must be justified before God be not our own, but the righteousness of God, as these things are directly opposed, Phil.3:9; and the only way whereby it comes upon us, or we are made partakers of it, is by the faith of Jesus Christ; then our own personal, inherent righteousness or obedience has no interest in our justification before God: which argument is insoluble, nor is the force of it to be waived by any distinctions whatever, if we keep our hearts unto a due reverence of the authority of God in his word. Having fully proved that no men living have any righteousness of their own whereby they may be justified, but are all shut up under the guilt of sin; and having declared that there is a righteousness of God now fully revealed in the gospel, whereby alone we may be so, leaving all men in themselves unto their own lot, inasmuch as "all have sinned and come short of the glory of God;"--he proceeds to declare the nature of our justification before God in all the causes of it, Rom.3:2~26, "Being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus: whom God has set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God, to declare, I say, at this time his righteousness; that he might be just, and the justifier of them that believe in Jesus". Here it is that we may and ought, if anywhere, to expect the interest of our personal obedience, under some qualification or other, in our justification to be declared. For if it should be supposed (which yet it cannot, with any pretence of reason) that, in the foregoing discourse, the apostle had excluded only the works of the law as absolutely perfect, or as wrought in our own strength without the aid of grace, or as meritorious; yet having generally excluded all works from our justification, verse 20, without distinction or limitation, it might well be expected, and ought to have been so, that, upon the full declaration which he gives us of the nature and way of our justification, in all the causes of it, he should have assigned the place and consideration which our own personal righteousness had in our justification before God,--the first, or second, or continuation of it, somewhat or other,--or at least made some mention of it, under the qualification of gracious, sincere, or evangelical, that it might not seem to be absolutely excluded. It is plain the apostle thought of no such thing, nor was at all solicitous about any reflection that might be made on his doctrine, as though it overthrew the necessity of our own obedience. Take in the consideration of the apostle's design, with the circumstances of the context, and the argument from his utter silence about our own personal righteousness, in our justification before God, is unanswerable. But this is not all; we shall find, in our progress, that it is expressly and directly excluded by him. All unprejudiced persons must needs think, that no words could be used more express and emphatical to secure the whole of our justification unto the free grace of God, through the blood or mediation of Christ, wherein it is faith alone that gives us an interest, than these used here by the apostle. And, for my part, I (continued in part 29...) ---------------------------------------------------- file: /pub/resources/text/ipb-e/epl-02: ownjs-28.txt .