(Owen, Justification. part 29) shall only say, that I know not how to express myself in this matter in words and terms more express or significant of the conception of my mind. And if we could all but subscribe the answer here given by the apostle, how, by what means, on what grounds, or by what causes, we are justified before God,--namely, that "we are justified freely by his grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, whom God has set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood," etc.,-- there might be an end of this controversy. But the principal passages of this testimony must be distinctly considered. First, the principal efficient cause is first expressed with a peculiar emphasis, or the "causa proegoumene". "Dikaioumenoi doorean tei autou chariti",--"Being justified freely by his grace." God is the principal efficient cause of our justification, and his grace is the only moving cause thereof. I shall not stay upon the exception of those of the Roman church,--namely, that by "tei chariti autou" (which their translation renders "per gratiam Dei"), the internal, inherent grace of God, which they make the formal cause of justification, is intended; for they have nothing to prove it but that which overthrows it, namely, that it is added unto "doorean", "freely;" which were needless, if it signify the free grace or favour of God: for both these expressions, "gratis per gratiam," "freely by grace," are put together to give the greater emphasis unto this assertion, wherein the whole of our justification is vindicated unto the free grace of God. So far as they are distinguishable, the one denotes the principle from whence our justification proceeds,--namely, grace; and the other, the manner of its operation,--it works freely. Besides, the grace of God in this subject does everywhere constantly signify his goodness, love, and favour; as has been undeniably proved by many. See Rom.5:15; Eph.2:4,8,9; 2 Tim.1:9; Tit.3:4,5. "Being justified "doorean" (so the LXX render the Hebrew particle "chinam"),--"without price," without merit, without cause;--and sometimes it is used for "without end;" that is, what is done in vain, as "doorean" is used by the apostle, Gal.2:21;--without price or reward, Gen.29:15; Exod.21:2; 2 Sam.24:24;--without cause, or merit, or any means of procurement, 1 Sam.19:5; Ps.69:4; in this sense it is rendered by "doorean", John 15:25. The design of the word is to exclude all consideration of any thing in us that should be the cause or condition of our justification. "Charis", "favour," absolutely considered, may have respect unto somewhat in him towards whom it is showed. So it is said that Joseph found grace or favour, "charin", in the eyes of Potiphar, Gen.39:4: but he found it not "doorean", without any consideration or cause; for he "saw that the LORD was with him, and made all that he did to prosper in his hand," verse 3. But no words can be found out to free our justification before God from all respect unto any thing in ourselves, but only what is added expressly as the means of its participation on our part, through faith in his blood, more emphatical than these here used by the apostle: "Doorean tei autou chariti",--"Freely by his grace." And with whom this is not admitted, as exclusive of all works or obedience of our own, of all conditions, preparations, and merit, I shall despair of ever expressing my conceptions about it intelligibly unto them. Having asserted this righteousness of God as the cause and means of our justification before him, in opposition unto all righteousness of our own, and declared the cause of the communication of it unto us on the part of God to be mere free, sovereign grace, the means on our part whereby, according unto the ordination of God, we do receive, or are really made partakers of, that righteousness of God whereon we are justified, is by faith: "Dia tes pisteoos en outou haimati",--that is, "By faith alone," Nothing else is proposed, nothing else required unto this end. It is replied, that there is no intimation that it is by faith alone, or that faith is asserted to be the means of our justification exclusively unto other graces or works. But there is such an exclusion directly included in the description given of that faith whereby we are justified, with respect unto its especial object,-- "By faith in his blood;" for faith respecting the blood of Christ as that whereby propitiation was made for sin,--in which respect alone the apostle affirms that we are justified through faith,--admits of no association with any other graces or duties. Neither is it any part of their nature to fix on the blood of Christ for justification before God; wherefore they are all here directly excluded. And those who think otherwise may try how they can introduce them into this contempt without an evident corrupting of it, and perverting of its sense. Neither will the other evasion yield our adversaries the least relief,--namely, that by faith, not the single grace of faith is intended, but the whole obedience required in the new covenant, faith and works together. For as all works whatever, as our works, are excluded in the declaration of the causes of our justification on the part of God ("doorean tei outou chariti",--"Freely by his grace"), by virtue of that great rule, Rom.11:6, "If by grace, then no more of works; otherwise grace is no more grace;" so the determination of the object of faith in its act or duty, whereon we are justified,--namely, the blood of Christ,--is absolutely exclusive of all works from an interest in that duty; for whatever looks unto the blood of Christ for justification is faith, and nothing else. And as for the calling of it a single act or duty, I refer the reader unto our preceding discourse about the nature of justifying faith. Three things the apostle infers from the declaration he had made of the nature and causes of our justification before God, all of them farther illustrating the meaning and sense of his words:-- 1. That boasting is excluded: "Pou oun he kauchesi? exekleisthe", chap.3:27. Apparent it is from hence, and from what he affirms concerning Abraham, chap.4:2, that a great part, at least, of the controversy he had about justification, was, whether it did admit of any "kauchesis" or "kauchema" in those that were justified. And it is known that the Jews placed all their hopes in those things whereof they thought they could boast,--namely, their privileges and their righteousness. But from the declaration made of the nature and causes of justification, the apostle infers that all boasting whatever is utterly shut out of doors,--"exekleisthe". Boasting, in our language is the name of a vice; and is never used in a good sense. But "kauchesis" and "kauchema", the words used by the apostle, are "ek toon mesoon",--of an indifferent signification; and, as they are applied, may denote a virtue as well as a vice: so they do, Heb.3:6. But always, and in all places, they respect something that is peculiar in or unto them unto whom they are ascribed. Wherever any thing is ascribed unto one, and not unto another, with respect unto any good end, there is fundamentum "kaucheseoos",--a "foundation for boasting." All this, says the apostle, in the matter of our justification, is utterly excluded. But wherever respect is had unto any condition or qualification in one more than another, especially if it be of works, it gives a ground of boasting, as he affirms, Rom.4:2. And it appears, from comparing that verse with this, that wherever there is any influence of our own works into our justification, there is a ground of boasting; but in evangelical justification no such boasting in any kind can be admitted. Wherefore, there is no place for works in our justification before God; for if there were, it is impossible but that a "kauchema", in one kind or other, before God or man, must be admitted. 2. He infers a general conclusion, "That a man is justified by faith, without the works of the law," chap.3:28. What is meant by "the law," and what by "the works of the law," in this discourse of the apostle about our justification, has been before declared. And if we are justified freely through faith in the blood of Christ, that faith which has the propitiation of Christ for its especial object, or as it has so, can take no other grace nor duty into partnership with itself therein; and being so justified as that all such boasting is excluded as necessarily results from any differencing graces or works in ourselves, wherein all the works of the law are excluded, it is certain that it is by faith alone in Christ that we are justified. All works are not only excluded, but the way unto their return is so shut up by the method of the apostle's discourse, that all the reinforcements which the wit of man can give unto them will never introduce them into our justification before God. 3. He asserts from hence, that we "do not make void the law through grace," but establish it, verse 31; which, how it is done, and how alone it can be done, has been before declared. This is the substance of the resolution the apostle gives unto that great inquiry, how a guilty convinced sinner may come to be justified in the sight of God?--"The sovereign grace of God, the mediation of Christ, and faith in the blood of Christ, are all that he requires thereunto." And whatever notions men may have about justification in other respects, it will not be safe to venture on any other resolution of this case and inquiry; nor are we wiser than the Holy Ghost. Rom. chap.4. In the beginning of the fourth chapter he confirms what he had before doctrinally declared, by a signal instance; and this was of the justification of Abraham, who being the father of the faithful, his justification is proposed as the pattern of ours, as he expressly declares, verses 22-24. And some fear things I shall observe on this instance in our passage unto the fifth verse, where I shall fix our discourse. 1. He denies that Abraham was justified by works, verse 2. And,-- (1.) These works were not those of the Jewish law, which alone some pretend to be excluded from our justification in this place; for they were the works he performed some hundreds of years before the giving of the law at Sinai: wherefore they are the works of his moral obedience unto God that are intended. (2.) Those works must be understood which Abraham had then, when he is said to be justified in the testimony produced unto that purpose; but the works that Abraham then had were works of righteousness, performed in faith and love to God, works of new obedience under the conduct and aids of the Spirit of God, works required in the covenant of grace. These are the works excluded from the justification of Abraham. And these things are plain, express, and evident, not to be eluded by any distinctions or evasions. All Abraham's evangelical works are expressly excluded from his justification before God. 2. He proves by the testimony of Scripture, declaring the nature and grounds of the justification of Abraham, that he was justified now other way but that which he had before declared,--namely, by grace, through faith in Christ Jesus, verse 3. "Abraham believed God" (in the promise of Christ and his mediation), "and it was counted unto him for righteousness," verse 3. He was justified by faith in the way before described (for other justification by faith there is none), in opposition unto all his own works and personal righteousness thereby. 3. From the same testimony he declares how he came to be partaker of that righteousness whereon he was justified before God; which was by imputation: it was counted or imputed unto him for righteousness. The nature of imputation has been before declared. 4. The especial nature of this imputation,--namely, that it is of grace, without respect unto works,--he asserts and proves, verse 4, from what is contrary thereunto: "Now to him that worketh is the reward not reckoned of grace, but of debt." Where works are of any consideration, there is no room for that kind of imputation whereby Abraham was justified: for it was a gracious imputation, and that is not of what is our own antecedently thereunto, but what is made our own by that imputation; for what is our own cannot be imputed unto us in a way of grace, but only reckoned ours in a way of debt. That which is our own, with all the effects of it, is due unto us; and, therefore, they who plead that faith itself is imputed unto us, to give some countenance unto an imputation of grace, do say it is imputed not for what it is, for then it would be reckoned of debt, but for what it is not. So Socinus, "Cum fides imputatur nobis pro justitia ideo imputatur, quia nec ipsa fides justitia est, nec vere in se eam continet", De Servat., part 4. cap.2. Which kind of imputation, being indeed only a false imagination, we have before disproved. But all works are inconsistent with that imputation whereby Abraham was justified. It is otherwise with him that works, so as thereon to be justified, than it was with him. Yea, say some, "All works that are meritorious, that are performed with an opinion of merit, that make the reward to be of debt, are excluded; but other works are not." This distinction is not learned from the apostle; for, according unto him, if this be merit and meritorious, that the reward be reckoned of debt, then all works in justification are so. For, without distinction or limitation, he affirms that "unto him that worketh, the reward is not reckoned of grace, but of debt." He does not exclude some sort of works, or works in some sense, because they would make the reward of debt, but affirms that all would do so, unto the exclusion of gracious imputation; for if the foundation of imputation be in ourselves, imputation by grace is excluded. In the fifth verse, the sum of the apostle's doctrine, which he had contended for, and what he had proved, is expressed: "But to him that worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness." It is granted on all hands, that the close of the verse, "His faith is counted for righteousness," does express the justification of the person intended. He is justified; and the way of it is, his faith is counted or imputed. Wherefore, the foregoing words declare the subject of justification and its qualification, or the description of the person to be justified, with all that is required on his part thereunto. And, first, it is said of him that he is "ho me ergadzomenos",-- "who worketh not." It is not required unto his justification that he should not work, that he should not perform any duties of obedience unto God in any kind, which is working; for every person in the world is always obliged unto all duties of obedience, according to the light and knowledge of the will of God, the means whereof is afforded unto him: but the expression is to be limited by the subject-matter treated of;--he "who worketh not," with respect unto justification; though not the design of the person, but the nature of the thing is intended. To say, he who worketh not is justified through believing, is to say that his works, whatever they be, have no influence into his justification, nor has God in justifying of him any respect unto them: wherefore, he alone who worketh not is the subject of justification, the person to be justified; that is, God considers no man's works, no man's duties of obedience, in his justification, seeing we are justified "doorean tei outou chariti",- -"freely by his grace." And when God affirms expressly that he justifies him who works not, and that freely by his grace, I cannot understand what place our works or duties of obedience can have in our justification; for why should we trouble ourselves to invent of what consideration they may be in our justification before God, when he himself affirms that they are of none at all? Neither are the words capable of any evading interpretation. He that worketh not is he that worketh not, let men say what they please, and distinguish as long as they will: and it is a boldness not to be justified, for any to rise up in opposition unto such express divine testimonies, however they may be harnessed with philosophical notions and arguing; which are but as thorns and briers, which the word of God will pass through and consume. But the apostle farther adds, in the description of the subject of justification, that God "justifieth the ungodly." This is that expression which has stirred up so much wrath amongst many, and on the account whereof some seem to be much displeased with the apostle himself. If any other person dare but say that God justifies the ungodly, he is personally reflected on as one that by his doctrine would overthrow the necessity of godliness, holiness, obedience, or good works; "for what need can there be of any of them, if God justifies the ungodly?" Howbeit this is a periphrasis of God, that he is "ho dikaioon ton asethe",--"he that justifieth the ungodly." This is his prerogative and property; as such will he be believed in and worshipped, which adds weight and emphasis unto the expression; and we must not forego this testimony of the Holy Ghost, let men be as angry as they please. "But the difference is about the meaning of the words." If so, it may be allowed without mutual offense, though we should mistake their proper sense. Only, it must be granted that God "justifieth the ungodly." "That is," say some, "those who formerly were ungodly, not those who continue ungodly when they are justified." And this is most true. All that are justified were before ungodly; and all that are justified are at the same instant made godly. But the question is, whether they are godly or ungodly antecedently in any moment of time unto their justification? If they are considered as godly, and are so indeed, then the apostle's words are not true, that God justifieth the ungodly; for the contradictory proposition is true, God justifieth none but the godly. For these propositions, God justifieth the ungodly, and God justifieth none but the godly, are contradictory; for here are expressly "katafasis" and "apofasis antikeimenai", which is "antifasis". Wherefore, although in and with the justification of a sinner, he is made godly,--for he is endowed with that faith which purifies the heart and is a vital principle of all obedience, and the conscience is purged from dead works by the blood of Christ,--yet antecedently unto this justification he is ungodly and considered as ungodly, as one that works not, as one whose duties and obedience contribute nothing unto his justification. As he works not, all works are excluded from being the "causa per quam;" and as he is ungodly, from being the "causa sine qua non" of his justification. The qualification of the subject, or the means on the part of the person to be justified, and whereby he becomes actually so to be, is faith, or believing: "But believeth on him who justifieth the ungodly;" that is, it is faith alone. For it is the faith of him who worketh not; and not only so, but its especial object, God as justifying the ungodly, is exclusive of the concomitance of any works whatever. This is faith alone, or it is impossible to express faith alone, without the literal use of that word alone. But faith being asserted in opposition unto all works of ours, "unto him that worketh not;" and its especial nature declared in its especial object, God as "justifying the ungodly,"that is, freely by his grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus;--no place is left for any works to make the least approach towards our justification before God, under the covert of any distinction whatever. And the nature of justifying faith is here also determined. It is not a mere assent unto divine revelations; it is not such a firm assent unto them as should cause us to yield obedience unto all the precepts of the Scripture,--though these things are included in it; but it is a believing on and trusting unto him that justified the ungodly, through the mediation of Christ. Concerning this person, the apostle affirms that "his faith is counted for righteousness;" that is, he is justified in the way and manner before declared. But there is a difference about the sense of these words. Some say the meaning of them is, that faith, as an act, a grace, a duty, or work of ours, is so imputed. Others say that it is faith as it apprehends Christ and his righteousness, which is properly imputed unto us, that is intended. So faith, they say, justifieth, or is counted for righteousness relatively, not properly, with respect unto its object; and so acknowledge a trope in the words. And this is fiercely opposed, as though they denied the express words of the Scripture, when yet they do but interpret this expression, once only used, by many others, wherein the same thing is declared. But those who are for the first sense, do all affirm that faith here is to be taken as including obedience or works, either as the form and essence of it, or as such necessary concomitants as have the same influence with it into our justification, or are in the same manner the condition of it. But as herein they admit also of a trope in the words, which they so fiercely blame in others, so they give this sense of the whole: "Unto him that worketh not, but believeth in him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith and works are counted to him for righteousness;" which is not only to deny what the apostle affirms, but to assign unto him a plain contradiction. And I do a little marvel that any unprejudiced person should expound this solitary expression in such a sense as is contradictory unto the design of the apostle, the words of the same period, and the whole ensuing context. For that which the apostle proposes unto confirmation, which contains his whole design, is, that we are justified by the righteousness which is of God by faith in the blood of Christ. That this cannot be faith itself shall immediately be made evident. And in the words of the text all works are excluded, if any words be sufficient to exclude them; but faith absolutely, as a single grace, act, and duty of ours, much more as it includes obedience in it, is a work,--and in the latter sense, it is all works. And in the ensuing context he proves that Abraham was not justified by works. But not to be justified by works, and to be justified by some works,--as faith itself is a work, and if, as such, it be imputed unto us for righteousness, we are justified by it as such,--are contradictory. Wherefore, I shall oppose some few arguments unto this feigned sense of the apostle's words:-- 1. To believe absolutely,--as faith is an act and duty of ours,-- and works are not opposed, for faith is a work, an especial kind of working; but faith, as we are justified by it, and works, or to work, are opposed: "To him that worketh not, but believeth." So Gal.2:16; Eph.2:8,9. 2. It is the righteousness of God that is imputed unto us; for we are "made the righteousness of God in Christ," 2 Cor.5:21; "The righteousness of God upon them that believe," Rom.3:21,22; but faith, absolutely considered, is not the righteousness of God. "God imputeth unto us righteousness without works," chap.4:6; but there is no intimation of a double imputation, of two sorts of righteousnesses,--of the righteousness of God, and that which is not so. Now faith, absolutely considered, is not the righteousness of God; for,-- (1.) That whereunto the righteousness of God is revealed, whereby we believe and receive it, is not itself the righteousness of God; for nothing can be the cause or means of itself;--but the righteousness of God is "revealed unto faith," chap.1:17; and by it is it "received," chap.3:22; 5:11. (2.) Faith is not the righteousness of God which is by faith; but the righteousness of God which is imputed unto us is "the righteousness of God which is by faith," chap.3:22; Phil.3:9. (3.) That whereby the righteousness of God is to be sought, obtained, and submitted unto, is not that righteousness itself; but such is faith, Rom.9:30,31; 10:3,4. (4.) The righteousness which is imputed unto us is not our own antecedently unto that imputation: "That I may be found in him, not having mine own righteousness," Phil.3:9; but faith is a man's own: "Show me thy faith, and I will show thee my faith," James 2:18. (5.) "God imputeth righteousness" unto us, Rom.4:6; and that righteousness which God imputes unto us is the righteousness whereby we are justified, for it is imputed unto us that we may be justified;--but we are justified by the obedience and blood of Christ: "By the obedience of one we are made righteous," chap.5:19; "Much more now being justified by his blood," verse 9; "He has put away sin by the sacrifice of himself," Heb.9:26; Isa.53:11, "By his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities." But faith is neither the obedience nor the blood of Christ. (6.) Faith, as we said before, is our own; and that which is our own may be imputed unto us. But the discourse of the apostle is about that which is not our own antecedently unto imputation, but is made ours thereby, as we have proved; for it is of grace. And the imputation unto us of what is really our own antecedently unto that imputation, is not of grace, in the sense of the apostle; for what is so imputed is imputed for what it is, and nothing else. For that imputation is but the judgment of God concerning the thing imputed, with respect unto them whose it is. So the act of Pinehas was imputed unto him for righteousness. God judged it, and declared it to be a righteous, rewardable act. Wherefore, if our faith and obedience be imputed unto us, that imputation is only the judgment of God that we are believers, and obedient. "The righteousness of the righteous," saith the prophet, "shall be upon him, and the wickedness of the wicked shall be upon him," Ezek.18:20. As the wickedness of the wicked is upon him, or is imputed unto him; so the righteousness of the righteous is upon him, or is imputed unto him. And the wickedness of the wicked is on him, when God judges him wicked as his works are; so is the righteousness of a man upon him, or imputed unto him, when God judgeth of his righteousness as it is. Wherefore, if faith, absolutely considered, be imputed unto us as it contains in itself, or as it is accompanied with, works of obedience; then it is imputed unto us, either for a perfect righteousness, which it is not, or for an imperfect righteousness, which it is; or the imputation of it is the accounting of that to be a perfect righteousness which is but imperfect. But none of these can be affirmed:-- [1.] It is not imputed unto us for a perfect righteousness, the righteousness required by the law; for so it is not. Episcopius confesses in his disputation, dispute.45, sect.7,8, that the righteousness which is imputed unto us must be "absolutissima et perfectissima,"-- "most absolute and most perfect." And thence he thus defines the imputation of righteousness unto us,--namely, that it is, "gratiosa divinae mentis aestimatio, qua credentem in Filium suum, eo loco reputat ac si perfecte justus esset, ac legi et voluntati ejus per omnia semper paruisset". And no man will pretend that faith is such a most absolute and most perfect righteousness, as that by it the righteousness of the law should be fulfilled in us, as it is by that righteousness which is imputed unto us. [2.] It is not imputed unto us for what it is,--an imperfect righteousness; for, First, This would be of no advantage unto us; for we cannot be justified before God by an imperfect righteousness, as is evident in the prayer of the psalmist, Ps.143:2, "Enter not into judgment with thy servant, for in thy sight no man living" (no servant of thine who has the most perfect or highest measure of imperfect righteousness) "shall be justified." Secondly, The imputation of any thing unto us that was ours antecedently unto that imputation, for what it is, and no more, is contrary unto the imputation described by the apostle; as has been proved. [3.] This imputation pleaded for cannot be a judging of that to be a perfect righteousness which is imperfect; for the judgment of God is according to truth. But without judging it to be such, it cannot be accepted as such. To accept of any thing, but only for what we judge it to be, is to be deceived. Lastly, If faith, as a work, be imputed unto us, then it must be as a work wrought in faith; for no other work is accepted with God. Then must that faith also wherein it is wrought be imputed unto us; for that also is faith and a good work. That, therefore, must have another faith from whence it must proceed; and so "in infinitum." Many other things there are in the ensuing explication of the justification of Abraham, the nature of his faith and his righteousness before God, with the application of them unto all that do believe, which may be justly pleaded unto the same purpose with those passages of the context which we have insisted on; but if every testimony should be pleaded which the Holy Ghost has given unto this truth, there would be no end of writing. One thing more I shall observe, and put an end unto our discourse on this chapter. Rom.4:6-8. The apostle pursues his argument to prove the freedom of our justification by faith, without respect unto works, through the imputation of righteousness, in the instance of pardon of sin, which essentially belongs thereunto. And this he does by the testimony of the psalmist, who places the blessedness of a man in the remission of sins. His design is not thereby to declare the full nature of justification, which he had done before, but only to prove the freedom of it from any respect unto works in the instance of that essential part of it. "Even as David also describeth the blessedness of the man unto whom God imputeth righteousness without works," (which was the only thing he designed to prove by this testimony), "saying, Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven." He describes their blessedness by it;--not that their whole blessedness does consist therein, but this concurs unto it, wherein no respect can possibly be had unto any works whatever. And he may justly from hence describe the blessedness of a man, in that the imputation of righteousness and the non-imputation of sin (both which the apostle mentions distinctly), wherein his whole blessedness as unto justification does consist, are inseparable. And because remission of sin is the first part of justification, and the principal part of it, and has the imputation of righteousness always accompanying it, the blessedness of a man may be well described thereby; yea, whereas all spiritual blessings go together in Christ, Eph.1:3, a man's blessedness may be described by any of them. But yet the imputation of righteousness and the remission of sin are not the same, no more than righteousness imputed and sin remitted are the same. Nor does the apostle propose them as the same, but mentions them distinctly, both being equally necessary unto our complete justification, as has been proved. Rom.5:12-21. "Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned: (for until the law sin was in the world: but sin is not imputed when there is no law. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come. But not as the offense, so also is the free gift. For if through the offense of one many be dead; much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, which is by one man, Jesus Christ, has abounded unto many. And not as it was by one that sinned, so is the gift: for the judgment was by one to condemnation, but the free gift is of many offenses unto justification. For if by one man's offense death reigned by one; much more they which receive abundance of grace, and of the gift of righteousness, shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ:) Therefore, as by the offense of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life. For as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners; so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous. Moreover, the law entered, that the offense might abound: but where sin abounded, grace did much more abound: that as sin has reigned unto death, even so might grace reign through righteousness unto eternal life by Jesus Christ our Lord." The apostle, chap.3:27, affirms that in this matter of justification all "kauchesis", or "boasting," is excluded; but here, in the verse foregoing, he grants a boasting or a "kauchema". "Ou monon de, alle kai kauchoomenoi en tooi Theooi";--"And not only so, but we also glory in God." He excludes boasting in ourselves, because there is nothing in us to procure or promote our own justification. He allows it us in God, because of the eminency and excellency of the way and means of our justification which in his grace he has provided. And the "kauchema", or "boasting" in God, here allowed us, has a peculiar respect unto what the apostle had in prospect farther to discourse of. "Ou monon de",--"And not only so," includes what he had principally treated of before concerning our justification, so far as it consists in the pardon of sin; for although he does suppose, yea, and mention, the imputation of righteousness also unto us, yet principally he declares our justification by the pardon of sin and our freedom from condemnation, whereby all boasting in ourselves is excluded. But here he designs a farther progress, as unto that whereon our glorying in God, on a right and title freely given us unto eternal life, does depend. And this is the imputation of the righteousness and obedience of Christ unto the justification of life, or the reign of grace through righteousness unto eternal life. Great complaints have been made by some concerning the obscurity of the discourse of the apostle in this place, by reason of sundry ellipses, antapodota, hyperbata, and other figures of speech, which (continued in part 30...) ---------------------------------------------------- file: /pub/resources/text/ipb-e/epl-02: ownjs-29.txt .