(Owen, Justification. part 31) Hereby many are made righteous. How? By the imputation of that obedience unto them. For so, and no otherwise, are men made sinners by the imputation of the disobedience of Adam. And this is that which gives us a right and title unto eternal life, as the apostle declares, verse 21, "That as sin reigned unto death, even so might grace reign through righteousness unto eternal life." This righteousness is no other but the "obedience of one",--that is, of Christ,--as it is called, verse 10. And it is said to "come" upon us,--that is, to be imputed unto us; for "Blessed is the man unto whom God imputeth righteousness." And hereby we have not only deliverance from that death and condemnation whereunto we were liable by the sin of Adam, but the pardon of many offenses,--that is, of all our personal sins,--and a right unto life eternal through the grace of God; for we are "justified freely by his grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus." And these things are thus plainly and fully delivered by the apostle; unto whose sense and expressions also (so far as may be) it is our duty to accommodate ours. What is offered in opposition hereunto is so made up of exceptions, evasions, and perplexed disputes, and leads us so far off from the plain words of the Scripture, that the conscience of a convinced sinner knows not what to fix upon to give it rest and satisfaction, nor what it is that is to be believed unto justification. Piscatory, in his scholia on this chapter and elsewhere, insists much on a specious argument against the imputation of the obedience of Christ unto our justification; but it proceeds evidently on an open mistake and false supposition, as well as it is contradictory unto the plain words of the text. It is true, which he observes and proves, that our redemption, reconciliation, pardon of sin, and justification, are often ascribed unto the death and blood of Christ in a signal manner. The reasons of it have partly been intimated before; and a farther account of them shall be given immediately. But it does not thence follow that the obedience of his life, wherein he fulfilled the whole law, being made under it for us, is excluded from any causality therein, or is not imputed unto us. But in opposition hereunto he thus argues:-- "Si obedientia vitae Christi nobis ad justitiam imputaretur, non fuit opus Christum pro nobis mori; mori enim necesse fuit pro nobis injustus", 1 Pet.3:18. "Quod si ergo justi effecti sumus per vitam illius, causa nulla relicta fuit cur pro nobis moreretur; quia justitia Dei non patitur ut puniat justos. At punivit nos in Christo, seu quod idem valet punivit Christum pro nobis, et loco nostri, posteaquam ille sancte vixisset, ut certum est e Scriptura. Ergo non sumus justi effecti per sanctam vitam Christi. .Item, Christus mortuus est ut justitiam illam Dei nobis acquireret", 2 Cor.5:21. "Non igitur illam acquisiverat ante mortem". But this whole argument, I say, proceeds upon an evident mistake; for it supposes such an order of things as that the obedience of Christ, or his righteousness in fulfilling the law, is first imputed unto us, and then the righteousness of his death is afterwards to take place, or to be imputed unto us; which, on that supposition, he says, would be of no use. But no such order or divine constitution is pleaded or pretended in our justification. It is true, the life of Christ and his obedience unto the law did precede his sufferings, and undergoing the curse thereof,--neither could it otherwise be, for this order of these things between themselves was made necessary from the law of nature,--but it does not thence follow that it must be observed in the imputation or application of them unto us. For this is an effect of sovereign wisdom and grace, not respecting the natural order of Christ's obedience and suffering, but the moral order of the things whereunto they are appointed. And although we need not assert, nor do I so do, different acts of the imputation of the obedience of Christ unto the justification of life, or a right and title unto life eternal, and of the suffering of Christ unto the pardon of our sins and freedom from condemnation,--but by both we have both, according unto the ordinance of God, that Christ may be all in all,--yet as unto the effects themselves, in the method of God's bringing sinners unto the justification of life, the application of the death of Christ unto them, unto the pardon of sin and freedom from condemnation, is, in order of nature, and in the exercise of faith, antecedent unto the application of his obedience unto us for a right and title unto life eternal. The state of the person to be justified is a state of sin and wrath, wherein he is liable unto death and condemnation. This is that which a convinced sinner is sensible of, and which alone, in the first place, he seeks for deliverance from: "What shall we do to be saved?" This, in the first place, is represented unto him in the doctrine and promise of the gospel; which is the rule and instrument of its application. And this is [by] the death of Christ. Without this no actual righteousness imputed unto him, not the obedience of Christ himself, will give him relief; for he is sensible that he has sinned, and thereby come short of the glory of God, and under the sentence condemnatory of the law. Until he receives a deliverance from hence, it is to no purpose to propose that unto him which should give him right unto life eternal. But upon a supposition hereof, he is no less concerned in what shall yet farther give him title whereunto, that he may reign in life through righteousness. Herein, I say, in its order, conscience is no less concerned than in deliverance from condemnation. And this order is expressed in the declaration of the fruit and effects of the mediation of Christ, Dan.9:24, "To make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness." Neither is there any force in the objection against it, that actually the obedience of Christ did precede his suffering: for the method of their application is not prescribed thereby; and the state of sinners to be justified, with the nature of their justification, requires it should be otherwise, as God also has ordained. But because the obedience and sufferings of Christ were concomitant from first to last, both equally belonging unto his state of exinanition, and cannot in any act or instance be separated, but only in notion or imagination, seeing he suffered in all his obedience and obeyed in all his sufferings, Heb.5:8; and neither part of our justification, in freedom from condemnation and right unto life eternal, can be supposed to be or exist without the other, according unto the ordinance and constitution of God; the whole effect is jointly to be ascribed unto the whole mediation of Christ, so far as he acted towards God in our behalf, wherein he fulfilled the whole law, both as to the penalty exacted of sinners and the righteousness it requires unto life as an eternal reward. And there are many reasons why our justification is, in the Scripture, by way of eminency, ascribed unto the death and blood-shedding of Christ. For,--1. The grace and love of God, the principal, efficient cause of our justification, are therein made most eminent and conspicuous; for this is most frequently in the Scripture proposed unto us as the highest instance and undeniable demonstration of divine love and grace. And this is that which principally we are to consider in our justification, the glory of them being the end of God therein. He "made us accepted in the Beloved, to the praise of the glory of his grace," Eph.1:6. Wherefore, this being the fountain, spring, and sole cause, both of the obedience of Christ and of the imputation thereof unto us, with the pardon of sin and righteousness thereby, it is everywhere in the Scripture proposed as the prime object of our faith in our justification, and opposed directly unto all our own works whatever. The whole of God's design herein is, that "grace may reign through righteousness unto eternal life." Whereas, therefore, this is made most evident and conspicuous in the death of Christ, our justification is in a peculiar manner assigned thereunto. 2. The love of Christ himself and his grace are peculiarly exalted in our justification: "That all men may honour the Son even as they honour the Father." Frequently are they expressed unto this purpose, 2 Cor.8:9; Gal.2:20; Phil.2:6,7; Rev.1:5,6. And those also are most eminently exalted in his death, so as that all the effects and fruits of them are ascribed thereunto in a peculiar manner; as nothing is more ordinary than, among many things that concur to the same effect, to ascribe it unto that which is most eminent among them, especially if it cannot be conceived as separated from the rest. 3. This is the clearest testimony that what the Lord Christ did and suffered was for us, and not for himself; for without the consideration hereof, all the obedience which he yielded unto the law might be looked on as due only on his own account, and himself to have been such a Saviour as the Socinians imagine, who should do all with us from God, and nothing with God for us. But the suffering of the curse of the law by him who was not only an innocent man, but also the Son of God, openly testifies that what he did and suffered was for us, and not for himself. It is no wonder, therefore, if our faith as unto justification be in the first place, and principally, directed unto his death and blood-shedding. 4. All the obedience of Christ had still respect unto the sacrifice of himself which was to ensue, wherein it received its accomplishment, and whereon its efficacy unto our justification did depend: for as no imputation of actual obedience would justify sinners from the condemnation that was passed on them for the sin of Adam; so, although the obedience of Christ was not a mere preparation or qualification of his person for his suffering, yet its efficacy unto our justification did depend on his suffering that was to ensue, when his soul was made an offering for sin. 5. As was before observed, reconciliation and the pardon of sin through the blood of Christ do directly, in the first place, respect our relief from the state and condition whereinto we were cast by the sin of Adam,--in the loss of the favour of God, and liableness unto death. This, therefore, is that which principally, and in the first place, a lost convinced sinner, such as Christ calls unto himself, does look after. And therefore justification is eminently and frequently proposed as the effect of the blood-shedding and death of Christ, which are the direct cause of our reconciliation and pardon of sin. But yet from none of these considerations does it follow that the obedience of the one man, Christ Jesus, is not imputed unto us, whereby grace might reign through righteousness unto eternal life. The same truth is fully asserted and confirmed, Rom.8:1-4. But this place has been of late so explained and so vindicated by another, in his learned and judicious exposition of it (namely, Dr Jacomb), as that nothing remains of weight to be added unto what has been pleaded and argued by him, part 1 verse 4, p.587, and onwards. And indeed the answers which he subjoins (to the arguments whereby he confirms the truth) to the most usual and important objections against the imputation of the righteousness of Christ, are sufficient to give just satisfaction unto the minds of unprejudiced, unengaged persons. I shall therefore pass over this testimony, as that which has been so lately pleaded and vindicated, and not press the same things, it may be (as is not unusual) unto their disadvantage. Rom.10:3,4. "For they" (the Jews, who had a zeal for God, but not according to knowledge), "being ignorant of God's righteousness, and going about to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted themselves unto the righteousness of God. For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness unto every one that believeth." What is here determined, the apostle enters upon the proposition and declaration of, chap.9:30. And because what he had to propose was somewhat strange, and unsuited unto the common apprehensions of men, he introduces it with that prefatory interrogation, "Ti oun eroumen;" (which he uses on the like occasions, chap.3:5; 6:1; 7:7; 9:14)--"What shall we say then?" that is, "Is there in this matter 'unrighteousness with God?'" as verse 14; or, "What shall we say unto these things?" or, "This is that which is to be said herein." That which hereon he asserts is, "That the Gentiles, which followed not after righteousness, have attained to righteousness, even the righteousness which is of faith; but Israel, which followed after the law of righteousness, has not attained to the law of righteousness;" that is, unto righteousness itself before God. Nothing seems to be more contrary unto reason than what is here made manifest by the event. The Gentiles, who lived in sin and pleasures, not once endeavouring to attain unto any righteousness before God, yet attained unto it upon the preaching of the gospel. Israel, on the other hand, which followed after righteousness diligently in all the works of the law, and duties of obedience unto God thereby, came short of it, attained not unto it. All preparations, all dispositions, all merit, as unto righteousness and justification, are excluded from the Gentiles; for in all of them there is more or less a following after righteousness, which is denied of them all. Only by faith in him who justifieth the ungodly, they attain righteousness, or they attained the righteousness of faith. For to attain righteousness by faith, and to attain the righteousness which is of faith, are the same. Wherefore, all things that are comprised any way in following after righteousness, such as are all our duties and works, are excluded from any influence into our justification. And this is expressed to declare the sovereignty and freedom of the grace of God herein,--name]y, that we are justified freely by his grace,--and that on our part all boasting is excluded. Let men pretend what they will, and dispute. what they please, those who attain unto righteousness and justification before God, when they follow not after righteousness, they do it by the gratuitous imputation of the righteousness of another unto them. It may be it will be said: "It is true in the time of their heathenism they did not at all follow after righteousness, but when the truth of the gospel was revealed unto them, then they followed after righteousness, and did attain it." But,--1. This is directly to contradict the apostle, in that it says that they attained not righteousness but only as they followed after righteousness; whereas he affirms the direct contrary. 2. It takes away the distinction which he puts between them and Israel,--namely, that the one followed after righteousness, and the other did not. 3. To follow after righteousness, in this place, is to follow after a righteousness of our own: "To establish their own righteousness," chap.10:3. But this is so far from being a means of attaining righteousness, as that it is the most effectual obstruction thereof. If, therefore, those who have no righteousness of their own, who are so far from it that they never endeavoured to attain it, do yet by faith receive that righteousness wherewith they are justified before God, they do so by the imputation of the righteousness of Christ unto them; or let some other way be assigned. In the other side of the instance, concerning Israel, some must hear, whether they will or not, that wherewith they are not pleased. Three things are expressed of them:--1. Their attempt. 2 Their success. 3. The reason of it. 1. Their attempt or endeavour was in this, that they "followed after the law of righteousness." "Diookoo", the word whereby their endeavour is expressed, signifies that which is earnest, diligent, and sincere. By it does the apostle declare what his [endeavour] was, and what ours ought to be, in the duties and exercise of gospel obedience, Phil.3:12. They were not in diligent in this matter, but "instantly served God day and night." Nor were they hypocritical; for the apostle bears them record in this matter, that "they had a zeal of God," Rom.10:2. And that which they thus endeavoured after was "nomos dikaiosunes",--"the law of righteousness," that law which prescribed a perfect personal righteousness before God; "the things which if a man do them, he shall live in them," chap.10:5. Wherefore, the apostle has no other respect unto the ceremonial law in this place but only as it was branched out from the moral law by the will of God, and as the obedience unto it belonged thereunto. When he speaks of it separately, he calls it "the law of commandments contained in ordinances;" but it is nowhere called "the law of righteousness," the law whose righteousness is fulfilled in us, chap.8:9a. Wherefore, the following after this law of righteousness was their diligence in the performance of all duties of obedience, according unto the directions and precepts of the moral law. 2. The issue of this attempt is, that they "attained not unto the law of righteousness," "eis nomon dikaiosunes ouk efthase",--that is, they attained not unto a righteousness before God hereby. Though this was the end of the law, namely, a righteousness before God, wherein a man might live, yet could they never attain it. 3. An account is given of the reason of their failing in attaining that which they so earnestly endeavoured after. And this was in a double mistake that they were under;--first, In the means of attaining it; secondly, In the righteousness itself that was to be sought after. The first is declared, chap.9:32, "Because not by faith, but as it were by the works of the law." Faith and works are the two only ways whereby righteousness may be attained, and they are opposite and inconsistent; so that none does or can seek after righteousness by them both. They will not be mixed and made one entire means of attaining righteousness. They are opposed as grace and works; what is of the one is not of the other, chap.11:6. Every composition of them in this matter is, "Male sarta gratia nequicquam coit et rescinditur". And the reason is, because the righteousness which faith seeks after, or which is attainable by faith, is that which is given to us, imputed unto us, which faith does only receive. It receives "the abundance of grace, and the gift of righteousness." But that which is attainable by works is our own, inherent in us, wrought out by us, and not imputed unto us; for it is nothing but those works themselves, with respect unto the law of God. And if righteousness before God be to be obtained alone by faith, and that in contradiction unto all works,--which if a man do them, according unto the law, "he shall even live in them," then is it by faith alone that we are justified before God, or, nothing else on our part is required thereunto. And of what nature this righteousness must be is evident. Again: if faith and works are opposed as contrary and inconsistent, when considered as the means of attaining righteousness or justification before God, as plainly they are, then is it impossible we should be justified before God by them in the same sense, way, and manner. Wherefore, when the apostle James affirms that a man is justified by works, and not by faith only, he cannot intend our justification before God, where it is impossible they should both concur; for not only are they declared inconsistent by the apostle in this place, but it would introduce several sorts of righteousness into justification, that are inconsistent and destructive of each other. This was the first mistake of the Jews, whence this miscarriage ensued,--they sought not after righteousness by faith, but as it were by the works of the law. Their second mistake was as unto the righteousness itself whereon a man might be justified before God; for this they judged was to be their own righteousness, chap.10:3. Their own personal righteousness, consisting in their own duties of obedience, they looked on as the only righteousness whereon they might be justified before God. This, therefore, they went about to establish, as the Pharisee did, Luke 18:11,12: and this mistake, with their design thereon, "to establish their own righteousness," was the principal cause that made them reject the righteousness of God; as it is with many at this day. Whatever is done in us, or performed by us, as obedience unto God, is our own righteousness. Though it be done in faith, and by the aids of God's grace, yet is it subjectively ours, and, so far as it is a righteousness, it is our own. But all righteousness whatever, which is our own, is so far diverse from the righteousness by which we are to be justified before God, as that the most earnest endeavour to establish it,--that is, to render it such as by which we may be justified,--is an effectual means to cause us to refuse a submission unto, and an acceptance of, that whereby alone we may be so. This ruined the Jews, and will be the ruin of all that shall follow their example in seeking after justification; yet is it not easy for men to take any other way, or to be taken off from this. So the apostle intimates in that expression, "They submitted not themselves unto the righteousness of God." This righteousness of God is of that nature that the proud mind of man is altogether unwilling to bow and submit itself unto; yet can it no otherwise be attained, but by such a submission or subjection of mind as contains in it a total renunciation of any righteousness of our own. And those who reproach others for affirming that men endeavouring after morality, or moral righteousness, and resting therein, are in no good way for the participation of the grace of God by Jesus Christ, do expressly deride the doctrine of the apostle; that is, of the Holy Ghost himself Wherefore, the plain design of the apostle is, to declare that not only faith and the righteousness of it, and a righteousness of our own by works, are inconsistent, that is, as unto our justification before God; but also, that the intermixture of our own works, in seeking after righteousness, as the means thereof, does wholly divert us from the acceptance of or submission unto the righteousness of God. For the righteousness which is of faith is not our own; it is the righteousness of God,--that which he imputes unto us. But the righteousness of works is our own,--that which is wrought in us and by us. And as works have no aptitude nor meekness in themselves to attain or receive a righteousness which, because it is not our own, is imputed unto us, but are repugnant unto it, as that which will cast them down from their legal dignity of being our righteousness; so faith has no aptitude nor meekness in itself to be an inherent righteousness, or so to be esteemed, or as such to be imputed unto us, seeing its principal faculty and efficacy consist in fixing all the trust, confidence, and expectation of the soul, for righteousness and acceptation with God, upon another. Here was the ruin of those Jews: they judged it a better, a more probable, yea, a more righteous and holy way for them, constantly to endeavour after a righteousness of their own, by duties of obedience unto the law of God, than to imagine that they could come to acceptance with God by faith in another. For tell them, and such as they, what you please, if they have not a righteousness of their own, that they can set upon its legs, and make to stand before God, the law will not have its accomplishment, and so will condemn them. To demolish this last sort of unbelief, the apostle grants that the law must have its end, and he completely fulfilled, or there is no appearing for us as righteous before God; and withal shows them how this is done, and where alone it is to be sought after: for "Christ," says he, "is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth," Rom.10:4. We need not trouble ourselves to inquire in what various senses Christ may be said to be "telos nomou",--"the end," the complement, the perfection, "of the law." The apostle sufficiently determines his intention, in affirming not absolutely that he is the end of the law, but he is so "eis dikaiosunen", "for righteousness," unto every one that believes. The matter in question is a righteousness unto justification before God. And this is acknowledged to be the righteousness which the law requires. God looks for no righteousness from us but what is prescribed in the law. The law is nothing but the rule of righteousness,--God's prescription of a righteousness, and all the duties of it, unto us. That we should be righteous herewith before God was the first, original end of the law. Its other ends at present, of the conviction of sin, and judging or condemning for it, were accidental unto its primitive constitution. This righteousness which the law requires, which is all and only that righteousness which God requires of us, the accomplishment of this end of the law, the Jews sought after by their own personal performance of the works and duties of it. But hereby, in the utmost of their endeavours, they could never fulfil this righteousness, nor attain this end of the law; which yet if men do not they must perish for ever. Wherefore, the apostle declares, that all this is done another way; that the righteousness of the law is fulfilled, and its end, as unto a righteousness before God, attained; and that is in and by Christ. For what the law required, that he accomplished; which is accounted unto every one that believes. Herein the apostle issues the whole disquisition about a righteousness wherewith we may be justified before God, and, in particular, how satisfaction is given unto the demands of the law. That which we could not do,--that which the law could not effect in us, in that it was weak through the flesh,--that which we could not attain by the works and duties of it,--that Christ has done for us; and so is "the end of the law for righteousness unto every one that believeth." The law demands a righteousness of us; the accomplishment of this righteousness is the end which it aims at, and which is necessary unto our justification before God. This is not to be attained by any works of our own, by any righteousness of our own. But the Lord Christ is this for us, and unto us; which, how he is or can be but by the imputation of his obedience and righteousness in the accomplishment of the law, I cannot understand; I am sure the apostle does not declare. The way whereby we attain unto this end of the law, which we cannot do by our utmost endeavours to establish our own righteousness, is by faith alone, for "Christ is the end of the law for righteousness unto every one that believeth." To mix any thing with faith herein, as it is repugnant unto the nature of faith and works, with respect unto their aptitude and meekness for the attaining of a righteousness, so it is as directly contradictory unto the express design and words of the apostle as any thing that can be invented. Let men please themselves with their distinctions, which I understand not (and yet, perhaps, should be ashamed to say so, but that I am persuaded they understand them not themselves by whom they are used), or with cavils, objections, feigned consequences, which I value not; here I shall forever desire to fix my soul, and herein to acquiesce,--namely, that "Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that does believe." And I do suppose, that all they who understand aright what it is that the law of God does require of them, how needful it is that it be complied withal, and that the end of it be accomplished, with the utter insufficiency of their own endeavours unto those ends, will, at least when the time of disputing is over, retake themselves unto the same refuge and rest. The next place I shall consider in the epistles of this apostle is,- - 1 Cor.1:30. "But of him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption." The design of the apostle in these words is to manifest, that whatever is wanting unto us on any account that we may please God, live unto him, and come to the enjoyment of him, that we have in and, by Jesus Christ; and this on the part of God from mere free and sovereign grace, as verses 26-29 do declare. And we have all these things by virtue of our insition or implantation in him: "ex autou",- "from," "of," or "by him." He by his grace is the principal, efficient cause hereof. And the effect is, that we are "in Christ Jesus," that is, ingrafted in him, or united unto him, as members of his mystical body; which is the constant sense of that expression in the Scripture. And the benefits which we receive hereby are enumerated in the following words. But, first, the way whereby we are made partakers of them, or they are communicated unto us, is declared: "Who of God is made unto us." It is so ordained of God, that he himself shall be made or become all this unto us: "Hos egenethe hemin apo Theou", where "apo" denotes the efficient cause, as "ex" did before. But how is Christ thus made unto us of God, or what act of God is it that is intended thereby? Socinus says it is "a general act of the providence of God, whence it is come to pass, or is so fallen out, that one way or other the Lord Christ should be said to be all this unto us." But it is an especial ordinance and institution of God's sovereign grace and wisdom, designing Christ to be all this unto us and for us, with actual imputation thereon, and nothing else, that is intended. Whatever interest, therefore, we have in Christ, and whatever benefit we have by him, it all depends on the sovereign grace and constitution of God, and not on any thing in ourselves. Whereas, then, we have no righteousness of our own, he is appointed of God to be our "righteousness," and is made so unto us: which can be no otherwise, but that his righteousness is made ours; for he is made it unto us (as he is likewise the other things mentioned) so as that all boasting, that is in ourselves, should be utterly excluded,and that "he that glorieth should glory in the Lord," verses 29-31. Now, there is such a righteousness, or such a way of being righteous, whereon we may have somewhat to glory, Rom.4:2, and which does not exclude boasting, chap.3:27. And this cannot possibly be but when our righteousness is inherent in us; for that, however it may be procured, or purchased, or wrought in us, is yet our own, so far as any thing can be our own whilst we are creatures. This kind of righteousness, therefore, is here excluded. And the Lord Christ being so made righteousness unto us of God as that all boasting and glorying on our part, or in ourselves, may be excluded,--yea, being made so for this very end, that so it should be,--it can be no otherwise but by the imputation of his righteousness unto us; for thereby is the grace of God, the honour of his person and mediation exalted, and all occasion of glorying in ourselves utterly prescinded. We desire no more from this testimony, but that whereas we are in ourselves destitute of all righteousness in the sight of God, Christ is, by a gracious act of divine imputation, made of God righteousness unto us, in such a way as that all our glorying ought to be in the grace of God, and the righteousness of Christ himself. Bellarmine attempts three answers unto this testimony, the two first whereof are coincident; and, in the third, being on the rack of light and truth, he confesses, and grants all that we plead for. 1. He says, "That Christ is said to be our righteousness, because he is the efficient cause of it, as God is said to be our strength; and so there is in the words a metonymy of the effect for the cause." And I say it is true, that the Lord Christ by his Spirit is the efficient cause of our personal, inherent righteousness. By his grace it is effected and wrought in us; he renews our natures into the image of God, and without him we can do nothing: so that our habitual and actual righteousness is from him. But this personal righteousness is our sanctification, and nothing else. And although the same internal habit of inherent grace, with operations suitable thereunto, be sometimes called our sanctification, and sometimes our righteousness, with respect unto those operations, yet is it never distinguished into our sanctification and our righteousness. But his being made righteousness unto us in this place is absolutely distinct from his being made sanctification unto us; which is that inherent righteousness which is wrought in us by the Spirit and grace of Christ. And his working personal righteousness in us, which is our sanctification, and the imputation of his righteousness unto us, whereby we are made righteous before God, are not only consistent, but the one of them cannot be without the other. 2. He pleads, "That Christ is said to be made righteousness unto us, as he is made redemption. Now, he is our redemption, because he has redeemed us. So is he said to be made righteousness unto us, because by him we become righteous;" or, as another speaks, "because by him alone we are justified." This is the same plea with the former,--namely, that there is a metonymy of the effect for the cause in all these expressions; yet what cause they intend it to be who expound the words, "By him alone we are justified," I do not understand. But Bellarmine is approaching yet nearer the truth: for as Christ is said to be made of God redemption unto us, because by his blood we are redeemed, or freed from sin, death, and hell, by the ransom he paid for us, or have redemption through his blood, even the forgiveness of sins; so he is said to be made righteousness unto us, because through his righteousness granted unto us of God (as God's making him to be righteousness unto us, and our becoming the righteousness of God in him, and the imputation of his (continued in part 32...) ---------------------------------------------------- file: /pub/resources/text/ipb-e/epl-02: ownjs-31.txt .