Owen, A Vindication... File 6
    (... continued from File 5)

         When I first considered these two last sections, I
    did not suspect but that he had at least truly
    represented my words, which he thought meet to reflect
    upon and scoff at; as knowing how easy it was for any one
    whose conscience would give him a dispensation for such
    an undertaking, to pick out sayings and expressions from
    the most innocent discourse, and odiously to propose
    them, as cut off from their proper coherence, and under a
    concealment of the end and the principal sense designed
    in them. Wherefore I did not so much as read over the
    discourse excepted against; only, once or twice observing
    my words, as quoted by him, not directly to comply with
    what I knew to be my sense and intention, I turned unto
    the particular places to discover his prevarication. But
    having gone through this ungrateful task, I took the
    pains to read over the whole digression in my book, which
    his exceptions are levelled against; and, upon my review
    of it, my admiration of his dealing was not a little
    increased. I cannot, therefore, but desire of the most
    partial adherers unto this censurer of other men's
    labours, judgements, and expressions, but once to read
    over that discourse, and if they own themselves to be
    Christians, I shall submit the whole of it, with the
    consideration of his reflections upon it, unto their
    judgements. If they refuse so to do, I let them know I
    despise their censures, and do look on the satisfaction
    they take in this man's scoffing reflections as the
    laughter of fools, or the crackling of thorns under a
    pot. For those who will be at so much pains to undeceive
    themselves, they will find that that expression of the
    "person of Christ" is but once or twice used in all that
    long discourse, and that occasionally; which, by the
    outcries here made against it, any one would suppose to
    have filled up almost all the pages of it. He will find,
    also, that I have owned and declared the revelation that
    God has made of himself, the properties of his nature,
    and his will, in his works of creation and providence, in
    its full extent and efficacy; and that by the knowledge
    of God in Christ, which I so much insist upon, I openly,
    plainly, and declaredly, intend nothing but the
    declaration that God has made of himself in Jesus Christ
    by the gospel: whereof the knowledge of his person, the
    great mystery of godliness, God manifested in the flesh,
    with what he did and suffered as the mediator between God
    and man, is the chiefest instance; in which knowledge
    consisteth all our wisdom of living unto God. Hereon I
    have no more to add, but that he by whom these things are
    denied or derided, does openly renounce his Christianity.
    And that I do not lay this unto the charge of this
    doughty writer, is because I am satisfied that he has not
    done it out of any such design, but partly out of
    ignorance of the things which he undertakes to write
    about, and partly to satisfy the malevolence of himself
    and some others against my person: which sort of depraved
    affections, where men give up themselves unto their
    prevalence, will blind the eyes and pervert the
    judgements of persons as wise as he. 
         In the first section of his fourth chapter I am not
    particularly concerned; and whilst he only vents his own
    conceits, be they never so idle or atheological, I shall
    never trouble myself, either with their examination or
    confutation. So many as he can persuade to be of his
    mind, - that we have no union with Christ but by virtue
    of union with the church (the contrary whereof is
    absolutely true); that Christ is so a head of rule and
    government unto the church, as that he is not a head of
    influence and supplies of spiritual life (contrary to the
    faith of the catholic church in all ages); that these
    assertions of his have any countenance from antiquity, or
    the least from the passages quoted out of Chrysostom by
    himself; that his glosses upon many texts of Scripture
    (which have an admirable coincidence with those of two
    other persons whom I shall name when occasion requires
    it) are sufficient to affix upon them the sense which he
    pleads for, will many other things of an equal falsehood
    and impertinency wherewith this section is stuffed, -
    shall, without any farther trouble from me, be left to
    follow their own inclinations. But yet, not withstanding
    all the great pains he has taken to instruct us in the
    nature of the union between Christ and believers, I shall
    take leave to prefer that given by Mr Hooker before it,
    not only as more true and agreeable unto the Scripture,
    but also as better expressing the doctrine of the church
    of England in this matter. And if these things please the
    present rulers of the church, - wherein upon the matter
    Christ is shuffled off, and the whole of our spiritual
    union is resolved into the doctrine of the gospel, and
    the rule of the church by bishops and pastors, let it
    imply what contradiction it will, as it does the highest,
    seeing it is by the doctrine of the gospel that we are
    taught our union will Christ, and his rule of the church
    by his laws and Spirit, - I have only the advantage to
    know somewhat more than I did formerly, though not much
    to my satisfaction. 
         But he that shall consider what reflections are cast
    in this discourse on the necessity of satisfaction to be
    made unto divine justice, and from whom they are
    borrowed; the miserable, weak attempt that is made
    therein to reduce all Christ's mediatory acting unto his
    kingly office, and, in particular, his intercession; the
    faint mention that is made of the satisfaction of Christ,
    clogged with the addition of ignorance of the philosophy
    of it, as it is called, well enough complying with them
    who grant that the Lord Christ did what God was satisfied
    withal, with sundry other things of the like nature; will
    not be to seek whence these things come, nor whither they
    are going, nor to whom our author is beholden for most of
    his rare notions; which it is an easy thing at any time
    to acquaint him withal. 
         The second section of this chapter is filled
    principally with exceptions against my discourse about
    the personal excellencies of Christ as mediator; if I may
    not rather say, with the reflections on the glory of
    Christ himself. [As] for my own discourse upon it, I
    acknowledge it to be weak, and not only inconceivably
    beneath the dignity and merit of the subject, but also
    far short of what is taught and delivered by many ancient
    writers of the church unto that purpose; and [as] for his
    exceptions, they are such a composition of ignorance and
    spite as is hardly to be paralleled. His entrance upon
    his work is (p. 200) as followeth: - "Secondly, Let us
    inquire what they mean by the person of Christ, to which
    believers must be united. And here they have outdone all
    the metaphysical subtilties of Suarez, and have found out
    a person for Christ distinct from his Godhead and
    manhood; for there can he no other sense made of what Dr
    Owen tells us, - that by the 'graces of his person' he
    does not mean the 'glorious excellencies of his Deity
    considered in itself, abstracting from the office which
    for us, as God and man, he undertook; nor the outward
    appearance of his human nature, when he conversed here on
    earth, nor yet as now exalted in glory: but the graces of
    the person of Christ, as he is vested with the office of
    mediation, - his spiritual eminency, comeliness, beauty,
    as appointed and anointed by the Father unto that great
    work of bringing home all his elect into his bosom.' Now,
    unless the person of Christ as mediator be distinct from
    his person as God-man, all this is idle talk; for what
    personal graces are there in Christ as mediator which do
    not belong to him either as God or man? There are some
    things, indeed, which our Saviour did and suffered, which
    he was not obliged to, either as God or man, but as
    mediator; but surely he will not call the peculiar duties
    and actions of an office personal graces." 
         I have now learned not to trust unto the honesty and
    ingenuity of our author, as to his quotations out of my
    book; which I find that he has here mangled and altered,
    as in other places, and shall therefore transcribe the
    whole passage in my own words, p. 51: "It is Christ as
    mediator of whom we speak; and therefore, by the 'grace
    of his person,' I understand not, first, The glorious
    excellencies of his Deity considered in itself,
    abstracting from the office which for us, as God and man,
    he undertook; nor, secondly, The outward appearance of
    his human nature, neither when he conversed here on
    earth, bearing our infirmities (whereof, by reason of the
    charge that was laid upon him, the prophet gives quite
    another character, Isa. 52: 14), concerning which some of
    the ancients are very poetical in their expressions; nor
    yet as now exalted in glory; - a vain imagination whereof
    makes many bear a false, a corrupted respect unto Christ,
    even upon carnal apprehensions of the mighty exaltation
    of the human nature; which is but to 'know Christ after
    the flesh,' - a mischief much improved by the abomination
    of foolish imagery. But this is that which I intend, -
    the graces of the person of Christ as he is vested with
    the office of mediation, his spiritual eminency,
    comeliness, and beauty, etc. Now, in this respect the
    Scripture describes him as exceeding excellent, comely,
    and desirable, - far above comparison with the chiefest,
    choicest created good, or any endearment imaginable;"
    which I prove at large from Ps. 45: 2; Isa. 4: 2; Cant.
    5: 9, adding an explanation of the whole. 
         In the digression, some passages whereof he carps at
    in this section, my design was to declare, as was said,
    somewhat of the glory of the person of Christ. To this
    end I considered both the glory of his divine and the
    many excellencies of his human nature; but that which I
    principally insisted on was the excellency of his person
    as God and man in one, whereby he was meet and able to be
    the mediator between God and man, and to effect all the
    great and blessed ends of his mediation. That our Lord
    Jesus Christ was God, and that there were, on that
    account, in his person the essential excellencies and
    properties of the divine nature, I suppose he will not
    deny; nor will he do so that he was truly man, and that
    his human nature was endowed with many glorious graces
    and excellencies which are peculiar thereunto. That there
    is a distinct consideration of his person as both these
    natures are united therein, is that which he seems to
    have a mind to except against. And is it meet that any
    one who has aught else to do should spend any moments of
    that time which he knows how better to improve, in the
    pursuit of a man's impertinencies, who is so bewildered
    in his own ignorance and confidence, that he knows
    neither where he is nor what he says? Did not the Son of
    God, by assuming our human nature, continuing what he
    was, become what he was not? Was not the person of
    Christ, by the communication of the properties of each
    nature in it and to it, a principle of such operations as
    he could not have wrought either as God or mere,
    separately considered? How else did God "redeem his
    church with his own blood?" or how is that true which he
    says, John 3: 13, "And no man has ascended up to heaven,
    but he that came down from heaven, even the Son of man,
    which is in heaven?" Was not the union of the two natures
    in the same person (which was a property neither of the
    divine nor human nature, but a distinct ineffable effect
    of divine condescension, wisdom, and grace, which the
    ancients unanimously call the "grace of union," whose
    subject is the person of Christ) that whereby he was fit,
    meet, and able, for all the works of his mediation? Does
    not the Scripture, moreover, propose unto our faith and
    consolation the glory, power, and grace of the person of
    Christ as he is "God over all, blessed for ever;" and his
    love, sympathy, care and compassion as man; yet all
    acting themselves in the one and self same person of the
    Son of God? Let him read the first chapter of the Epistle
    to the Hebrews, and see what account he can give thereof.
    And are not these such principles of Christian religion
    as no man ought to be ignorant of, or can deny, without
    the guilt of the heresies condemned in the first general
    councils? And they are no other principles which my whole
    discourse excepted against does proceed upon. But saith
    our author, "Unless the person of Christ as mediator be
    distinct from his person as God-man, all this is idle
    talk." Very good! and why so? Why, "What personal graces
    are there in Christ as mediator, which do not belong unto
    him either as God or man?" But is he not ashamed of this
    ignorance? Is it not a personal grace and excellency that
    he is God and man in one person? which belongs not to him
    either as God or man. And are there not personal
    operations innumerable depending hereon, which could not
    have been wrought by him either as God or man; as raising
    himself from the dead by his own power, and redeeming the
    church with his blood? Are not most of the descriptions
    that are given us of Christ in the Scripture, most of the
    operations which are assigned unto him, such as neither
    belong unto nor proceed from the divine or human nature,
    separately considered, but from the person of Christ, as
    both these natures are united in it? That which seems to
    have led him into the maze wherein he is bewildered in
    his ensuing discourse, is, that considering there are but
    two natures in Christ, the divine and the human, - and
    nature is the principle of all operations, - he supposed
    that nothing could be said of Christ, nothing ascribed to
    his person, but what was directly, formally predicated of
    one of his natures, distinctly considered. But he might
    have easily inquired of himself, - that seeing all the
    properties and acts of the divine nature are absolutely
    divine, and all those of the human nature absolutely
    human, whence it came to pass that all the operations and
    works of Christ, as mediator, are theandrical? Although
    there be nothing in the person of Christ but his divine
    and human nature, yet the person of Christ is neither his
    divine nature nor his human; for the human nature is, and
    ever was, of itself, "anupostatos"; and the divine, to
    the complete constitution of the person of the Mediator,
    in and unto its own hypostasis assumed the human: so
    that, although every energy or operation be "drastike tes
    fuseos kinesis", and so the distinct natures are distinct
    principles of Christ's operations, yet his person is the
    principal or only agent; which being God-man, all the
    actions thereof, by virtue of the communication of the
    properties of both natures therein, are theandrical. And
    the excellency of this person of Christ, wherein he was
    every way fitted for the work of mediation, I call
    sometimes his personal grace, and will not go to him to
    learn to speak and express myself in these things. And it
    is most false which he affirms, p. 203, "That I
    distinguish the graces of Christ's person as mediator
    from the graces of his person as God and man." Neither
    could any man have run into such an imagination who had
    competently understood the things which he speaks about;
    and the bare proposal of these things is enough to defeat
    the design of all his ensuing cavils and exceptions. 
         And as to what he closets withal, that "Surely I
    will not call the peculiar duties and actions of an
    office personal graces;" I suppose that he knoweth not
    well what he intends thereby. Whatever he has fancied
    about Christ being the name of an office, Jesus Christ,
    of whom we speak, is a person, and not an office; and
    there are no such things in rerum natura as the actions
    of an office. And if by them he intends the actions of a
    person in the discharge of an office, whatever he calls
    them, I will call the habits in Christ, from whence all
    his actions in the performance of his office do proceed,
    "personal graces," and that whether he will or no. So he
    is a "merciful, faithful, and compassionate high priest,"
    Heb. 2: 17, 4: 15, 5: 2. And all his actions, in the
    discharge of his office of priesthood, being principled
    and regulated by those qualifications, I do call them his
    personal graces, and do hope that, for the future, I may
    obtain his leave so to do. The like may be said of his
    other offices. 
         The discourse which he thus raves against is
    didactical, and accommodated unto a popular way of
    instruction; and it has been hitherto the common
    ingenuity of all learned men to give an allowance unto
    such discourses, so as not to exact from them an accuracy
    and propriety in expressions, such as is required in
    those that are scholastical or polemical. It is that
    which, by common consent, is allowed to the tractates of
    the ancients of that nature, - especially where nothing
    is taught but what, for the substance of it, is consonant
    unto the truth. But this man attempts not only a severity
    in nibbling at all expressions which he fancieth liable
    unto his censures, but, with a disingenuous artifice,
    waiving the tenor and process of the discourse, which I
    presume he found not himself able to oppose, he takes
    out, sometimes here, sometimes there, up and down,
    backward and forward, at his pleasure, what he will, to
    put, if it be possible, an ill sense upon the whole. And,
    if he have not hereby given a sufficient discovery of his
    good-will towards the doing of somewhat to my
    disadvantage, he has failed in his whole endeavour; for
    there is no expression which he has fixed on as the
    subject of his reflections, which is truly mine, but that
    as it is used by me, and with respect unto its end, I
    will defend it against him and all his co-partners,
    whilst the Scripture may be allowed to be the rule and
    measure of our conceptions and expressions about sacred
    things. And although at present I am utterly wearied with
    the consideration of such sad trifling, I shall accept
    from him the kindness of an obligation to so much
    patience as is necessary unto the perusal of the ensuing
    leaves, wherein I am concerned. 
         First, p. 202, he would pick something, if he knew
    what, out of my quotations of Cant. 5: 9, to express or
    illustrate the excellency of Christ; which first he calls
    an "excellent proof," by way of scorn. But as it is far
    from being the only proof produced in the confirmation of
    the same truth, and is applied rather to illustrate what
    was spoken, than to prove it, yet, by his favour, I shall
    make bold to continue my apprehensions of the occasional
    exposition of the words which I have given in that place,
    until he is pleased to acquaint me with a better; which,
    I suppose, will be long enough. For what he adds, - "But,
    however, white and ruddy belong to his divine and human
    nature, and that without regard to his mediatory office;
    for he had been white in the glory of his Deity, and
    ruddy with the red earth of his humanity, whether he had
    been considered as mediator or not," - it comes from the
    same spring of skill and benevolence with those store.
    For what wise talk is it, of Christ's being God and man,
    without the consideration of his being mediator! as
    though he were ever, or ever should have been, God and
    man, but with respect unto his mediation? His scoff at
    the red earth of Christ's humanity, represented as my
    words, is grounded upon a palpable falsification; for my
    words are, "He was also ruddy in the beauty of his
    humanity. Man was called Adam, from the red earth whereof
    he was made. The word here used points him out as the
    second Adam, partaker of flesh and blood, because the
    children also partook of the same." And if he be
    displeased with these expressions, let him take his own
    time to be pleased again; it is that wherein I am not
    concerned. But my fault, which so highly deserved his
    correction, is, that I apply that to the person of Christ
    which belongs unto his natures. But what if I say no such
    thing, or had no such design in that place? For although
    I do maintain a distinct consideration of the excellency
    of Christ's person, as comprising both his natures
    united, - though every real thing in his person belongs
    forma]ly and radically unto one [or other] of the natures
    (those other excellencies being the exurgency of their
    union), whereby his person was fitted and suited unto his
    mediatory operations, which in neither nature, singly
    considered, he could have performed, - and shall continue
    to maintain it against whosoever dares directly to oppose
    it; yet in this place I intended it not, which this man
    knew well enough, - the very next words unto what he
    pretends to prove it [by], being, "The beauty and
    comeliness of the Lord Jesus Christ, in the union of both
    these in one person, shall afterward be declared." And so
    we have an equality in judgement and ingenuity throughout
    this censure. 
         Hence he leaps to p. 64 of my book, thence backwards
    to p. 53, and then up and down, I know not how nor
    whither. He begins with p. 64 - "And in his first
    digression concerning the excellency of Christ Jesus, to
    invite us to communion with him in a conjugal relation,
    he tells us that Christ is exceeding excellent and
    desirable in his Deity, and the glory thereof; he is
    desirable and worthy our acceptation as considered in his
    humanity, in his freedom from sin, fulness of grace, etc.
    Now, though this looks very like a contradiction, that by
    the graces of his person, he meant neither the
    excellencies of his divine nor human nature; yet he has a
    salvo which will deliver him both from contradiction and
    from nonsense, - that he does not consider these
    excellencies of his Deity or humanity as abstracted from
    his office of mediator, though he might if he pleased:
    for he considers those excellencies which are not
    peculiar to the office of mediation, but which would have
    belonged unto him as God and man, whether he had been
    mediator or not. But what becomes of his distinction of
    the graces of Christ's person as mediator from the graces
    of his person as God and man, when there are no personal
    graces in Christ but what belong to his Deity or his
         I am sufficiently satisfied that he neither knows
    where he is nor what he does, or has no due comprehension
    of the things he treats about. That which he opposeth, if
    he intend to oppose any thing by me asserted, is, that
    whereas Christ is God, the essential properties of his
    divine nature are to be considered as the formal motive
    unto, and object of, faith, love, and obedience; and
    whereas he is man also, his excellencies, in the glorious
    endowment of his human nature, with his alliance unto us
    therein, and his furniture of grace for the discharge of
    his office, are proposed unto our faith and love in the
    Scripture. And of these things we ought to take a
    distinct consideration; our faith concerning them being
    not only taught in the Scripture, but fully confirmed in
    the confessions and determinations of the primitive
    church. But the person of Christ, wherein these two
    natures are united, is of another distinct consideration;
    and such things are spoken thereof as cannot, under any
    single enunciation, be ascribed unto either nature,
    though nothing be so but what formally belongs unto one
    of them, or is the necessary consequent and exurgency of
    their union. See Isa. 9: 6; 1 Tim. 3: 16; John 1: 14. It
    is of the "glory of the Word of God made flesh" that I
    discourse. But this man talks of what would have belonged
    to Christ as God-man, whether he had been mediator or
    not; as though the Son of God either was, or was ever
    designed to be, or can be, considered as God-man, and not
    as mediator. And thence he would relieve himself by the
    calumny of assigning a distinction unto me between the
    graces of Christ's person as mediator, and the graces of
    his person as God and man (that is, one person); which is
    a mere figment of his own misunderstanding. Upon the
    whole, he comes to that accurate thesis of his own, -
    that there are no personal graces in Christ but what
    belong to his Deity or humanity. Personal graces
    belonging unto the humanity, or human nature of Christ, -
    that nature being "anupostatos", or such as has no
    personal subsistence of its own, - is a notion that those
    may thank him for who have a mind to do it. And he may do
    well to consider what his thoughts are of the grace of
    our Lord Jesus Christ, mentioned Phil. 2: 6-11. 
         But he will now discover the design of all these
    things, and afterward make it good by quotations out of
    my book. The first he does, p. 203, and onwards: "But
    whatever becomes of the sense of the distinction, there
    is a very deep fetch in it, the observing of which will
    discover the whole mystery of the person of Christ and
    our union to him. For these men consider that Christ
    saves us as he is our mediator, and not merely considered
    as God or man; and they imagine that we receive grace and
    salvation from Christ's person just as we do water out of
    a conduit, or a gift and largess from a prince, - that it
    flows to us from our union to his person; and therefore
    they dress up the person of the Mediator with all those
    personal excellencies and graces which may make him a fit
    Saviour, that those who are thus united to his person (of
    which more in the next section) need not fear missing of
    salvation. Hence they ransack all the boundless
    perfections of the Deity, and whatever they can find or
    fancy speaks any comfort to sinners, this is presently a
    personal grace of the Mediator; - they consider all the
    glorious effects of his mediation; and whatever great
    things are spoken of his gospel, or religion, or
    intercession for us, these serve as personal graces: so
    that all our hopes may be built, not on the gospel
    covenant, but on the person of Christ. So that the
    dispute now lies between the person of Christ and his
    gospel, - which must be the foundation of our hope, -
    which is the way to life and happiness" 
         First, We do consider and believe that Christ saves
    as a mediator; that is, as God and man in one person,
    exercising the office of a mediator, and not merely as
    God or man. This we believe with all the catholic church
    of Christ, and can with boldness say, He that does not
    so, let him be anathema maran-atha. Secondly, We do not
    imagine, but believe from the Scripture, and with the
    whole church of God, that we receive grace and salvation
    from the person of Christ in those distinct ways wherein
    they are capable of being received; and let him be
    anathema who believes otherwise. Only, whether his
    putting of grace and salvation into the same way of
    reception belong unto his accuracy in expressing his own
    sentiments, or his ingenuity in the representation of
    other men's words, I leave undetermined. The similitudes
    he useth to express our faith in these things, show his
    good-will towards scoffing and profaneness. We say, there
    is real communication of grace from the person of Christ,
    as the head of the church, unto all the members of his
    mystical body by his Spirit, whereby they are quickened,
    sanctified, and enabled unto all holy obedience: and, if
    it be denied by him, he stands anathematised by sundry
    councils of the ancient church. We say not, that we
    receive it as "water out of a conduit," which is of a
    limited, determined capacity; whereas we say, the person
    of Christ, by reason of his Deity, is an immense,
    eternal, living spring or fountain of all grace. And when
    God calls himself a "fountain of living water;" and the
    Lord Christ calls his Spirit communicated to believers
    "living water" (under which appellation he was frequently
    promised in the Old Testament); as also the grace and
    mercy of the gospel, the "water of life," inviting us to
    receive them, and to drink of them, this author may be
    advised to take heed of profane scoffing at these things.
    Whether any have said, that we receive grace and
    salvation from Christ, as "a gift or largess from a
    prince," I know not; if they have, the sole defect
    therein is, that the allusion does no way sufficiently
    set forth the freedom and bounty of Christ in the
    communication of them unto sinners; and wherein else it
    offends, let him soberly declare, if he can. This is the
    charge upon us in point of faith and judgement; which, in
    one word, amounts to no more but this, - that we are
    Christians: and so, by the grace of God, we intend to
    continue, let this man deride us whilst he pleaseth.
    Thirdly, His next charge concerns our practice in the
    pursuit of these dreadful principles, which, by their
    repetition, he has exposed to scorn: "And therefore they
    dress up," etc. What does this poor man intend? what is
    the design of all this profaneness? The declaration of
    the natures and person of Christ, - of his grace and
    work, - the ascribing unto him what is directly and
    expressly in terms ascribed unto him in the Scripture, or
    relating, as we are able, the description it gives of
    him, - is here called, "Dressing up the person of the
    Mediator with all those personal graces that may make him
    a fit Saviour." The preparation of the person of Christ
    to be a fit and meet Saviour for sinners, which he
    profanely compares to the dressing up of -, is the
    greatest, most glorious, and admirable effect that ever
    infinite wisdom, goodness, power, and love wrought and
    produced, or will do so unto eternity. And those on whom
    he reflects design nothing, do nothing in this matter,
    but only endeavour, according to the measure of the gift
    of Christ which they have received, to declare and
    explain what is revealed and taught in the Scripture
    thereof; and those who exceed the bounds of Scripture
    revelation herein (if any do so) we do abhor. And as for
    those who are united unto Christ, although we say not
    that they need not fear missing of salvation, seeing they
    are to be brought unto it, not only through the exercise
    of all graces, whereof fear is one, but also through such
    trials and temptations as will always give them a fear of
    heed and diligence, and sometimes such a fear of the
    event of things as shall combat their faith, and shake
    its firmest resolves; yet we fear not to say, that those
    who are really united unto Jesus Christ shall be
    assuredly saved; which I have proved elsewhere beyond the
    fear of any opposition from this author, or others like
    minded. Fourthly, He adds "Hence they ransack," etc. But

    Owen, A Vindication...
    (continued in File 7...)

    file: /pub/resources/text/ipb-e/epl-09: owvin-06.txt