(Bunyan, Pilgrim's Progress. part 8)

is as the chief of all the fair, so the ware of Rome and her merchandise 
is greatly promoted in this fair; only our English nation, 
with some others, have taken a dislike thereat. 
Now, as I said, the way to the Celestial City lies just through 
this town where this lusty fair is kept; and he that will go 
to the city, and yet not go through this town, must needs go out 
of the world.  [1 Cor. 5:10]   
The Prince of princes himself, when here, went through this town 
to his own country, and that upon a fair day too; yea, and as I think, 
it was Beelzebub, the chief lord of this fair, that invited him 
to buy of his vanities; yea, would have made him lord of the fair, 
would he but have done him reverence as he went through the town. 
[Matt. 4:8, Luke 4:5-7]  Yea, because he was such a person of honour, 
Beelzebub had him from street to street, and showed him 
all the kingdoms of the world in a little time, that he might, 
if possible, allure the Blessed One to cheapen and buy some 
of his vanities; but he had no mind to the merchandise, 
and therefore left the town, without laying out so much 
as one farthing upon these vanities.  This fair, therefore, 
is an ancient thing, of long standing, and a very great fair. 
Now these pilgrims, as I said, must needs go through this fair. 
  Well, so they did:  but, behold, 
even as they entered into the fair, all the people in the fair 
were moved, and the town itself as it were in a hubbub about them; 
and that for several reasons:  for-- 
First, The pilgrims were clothed with such kind of raiment 
as was diverse from the raiment of any that traded in that fair. 
The people, therefore, of the fair, made a great gazing upon them: 
some said they were fools, some they were bedlams, 
and some they are outlandish men.  [1 Cor. 2:7-8] 
Secondly, And as they wondered at their apparel, so they did likewise 
at their speech; for few could understand what they said; 
they naturally spoke the language of Canaan, but they that kept the fair 
were the men of this world; so that, from one end of the fair 
to the other, they seemed barbarians each to the other. 
Thirdly, But that which did not a little amuse the merchandisers was, 
that these pilgrims set very light by all their wares; they cared not 
so much as to look upon them; and if they called upon them to buy, 
they would put their fingers in their ears, and cry, 
Turn away mine eyes from beholding vanity, and look upwards, 
signifying that their trade and traffic was in heaven.  [Ps. 119:37, 
Phil. 3:19-20] 
One chanced mockingly, beholding the carriage of the men, 
to say unto them, What will ye buy?  But they, looking gravely upon him, 
answered, "We buy the truth."  [Prov. 23:23]   
At that there was an occasion taken to despise the men the more; 
some mocking, some taunting, some speaking reproachfully, 
and some calling upon others to smite them.   
At last things came to a hubbub and great stir in the fair, 
insomuch that all order was confounded.  Now was word presently brought 
to the great one of the fair, who quickly came down, 
and deputed some of his most trusty friends to take these men 
into examination, about whom the fair was almost overturned. 
  So the men were brought to examination; 
and they that sat upon them, asked them whence they came, 
whither they went, and what they did there, in such an unusual garb? 
  The men told them 
that they were pilgrims and strangers in the world, and that they 
were going to their own country, which was the heavenly Jerusalem, 
[Heb. 11:13-16] and that they had given no occasion to the men 
of the town, nor yet to the merchandisers, thus to abuse them, 
and to let them in their journey, except it was for that, 
when one asked them what they would buy, they said they would buy 
the truth.    But they that were appointed to 
examine them did not believe them to be any other than bedlams and mad, 
or else such as came to put all things into a confusion in the fair. 
  Therefore they took them and beat them, 
and besmeared them with dirt, and then put them into the cage, 
that they might be made a spectacle to all the men of the fair. 
     Behold Vanity Fair! the Pilgrims there 
       Are chain'd and stand beside: 
     Even so it was our Lord pass'd here, 
       And on Mount Calvary died. 
There, therefore, they lay for some time, and were made the objects 
of any man's sport, or malice, or revenge, the great one of the fair 
laughing still at all that befell them.  But the men being patient, 
and not rendering railing for railing, but contrariwise, blessing, 
and good words for bad, and kindness for injuries done, 
some men in the fair that were more observing, and less prejudiced 
than the rest, began to check and blame the baser sort 
for their continual abuses done by them to the men; they, therefore, 
in angry manner, let fly at them again, counting them as bad 
as the men in the cage, and telling them that they seemed confederates, 
and should be made partakers of their misfortunes. 
The other replied that, for aught they could see, the men were quiet, 
and sober, and intended nobody any harm; and that there were many 
that traded in their fair that were more worthy to be put into the cage, 
yea, and pillory too, than were the men they had abused.  Thus, 
after divers words had passed on both sides, the men behaving themselves 
all the while very wisely and soberly before them, 
they fell to some blows among themselves, and did harm one to another. 
  Then were these 
two poor men brought before their examiners again, and there charged 
as being guilty of the late hubbub that had been in the fair. 
So they beat them pitifully, and hanged irons upon them, 
and led them in chains up and down the fair, for an example and a terror 
to others, lest any should speak in their behalf, or join themselves 
unto them.   
But Christian and Faithful behaved themselves yet more wisely, 
and received the ignominy and shame that was cast upon them, 
with so much meekness and patience, that it won to their side, 
though but few in comparison of the rest, several of the men 
in the fair.  This put the other party yet into greater rage, 
insomuch that they concluded the death of these two men. 
  Wherefore they threatened, 
that the cage nor irons should serve their turn, but that they 
should die, for the abuse they had done, and for deluding the men 
of the fair. 
Then were they remanded to the cage again, until further order should 
be taken with them.  So they put them in, and made their feet fast 
in the stocks. 
Here, therefore, they called again to mind what they had heard 
from their faithful friend Evangelist, and were the more confirmed 
in their way and sufferings by what he told them would happen to them. 
They also now comforted each other, that whose lot it was to suffer, 
even he should have the best of it; therefore each man secretly wished 
that he might have that preferment:  but committing themselves to 
the all-wise disposal of Him that ruleth all things, with much content, 
they abode in the condition in which they were, until they should be 
otherwise disposed of. 
Then a convenient time being appointed, they brought them forth 
to their trial, in order to their condemnation.  When the time was come, 
they were brought before their enemies and arraigned.  The judge's name 
was Lord Hate-good.  Their indictment was one and the same in substance, 
though somewhat varying in form, the contents whereof were this:-- 
"That they were enemies to and disturbers of their trade; 
that they had made commotions and divisions in the town, 
and had won a party to their own most dangerous opinions, 
in contempt of the law of their prince." 
     Now, FAITHFUL, play the man, speak for thy God: 
     Fear not the wicked's malice; nor their rod: 
     Speak boldly, man, the truth is on thy side: 
     Die for it, and to life in triumph ride. 
Then Faithful began to answer, that he had only set himself against 
that which hath set itself against Him that is higher than the highest. 
And, said he, as for disturbance, I make none, being myself 
a man of peace; the parties that were won to us, were won by beholding 
our truth and innocence, and they are only turned from the worse 
to the better. And as to the king you talk of, since he is Beelzebub, 
the enemy of our Lord, I defy him and all his angels. 
Then proclamation was made, that they that had aught to say 
for their lord the king against the prisoner at the bar, 
should forthwith appear and give in their evidence. So there came in 
three witnesses, to wit, Envy, Superstition, and Pickthank. 
They were then asked if they knew the prisoner at the bar; 
and what they had to say for their lord the king against him. 
Then stood forth Envy, and said to this effect:  My Lord, 
I have known this man a long time, and will attest upon my oath 
before this honourable bench, that he is-- 
JUDGE.  Hold!  Give him his oath.  (So they sware him.)  Then he said-- 
ENVY.  My Lord, this man, notwithstanding his plausible name, 
is one of the vilest men in our country.  He neither regardeth 
prince nor people, law nor custom; but doth all that he can 
to possess all men with certain of his disloyal notions, 
which he in the general calls principles of faith and holiness. 
And, in particular, I heard him once myself affirm that Christianity 
and the customs of our town of Vanity were diametrically opposite, 
and could not be reconciled.  By which saying, my Lord, 
he doth at once not only condemn all our laudable doings, 
but us in the doing of them. 
JUDGE.  Then did the Judge say to him, Hast thou any more to say? 
ENVY.  My Lord, I could say much more, only I would not be tedious 
to the court.  Yet, if need be, when the other gentlemen have given in 
their evidence, rather than anything shall be wanting 
that will despatch him, I will enlarge my testimony against him. 
So he was bid to stand by.  Then they called Superstition, 
and bid him look upon the prisoner.  They also asked, what he could say 
for their lord the king against him.  Then they sware him; so he began. 
SUPER.  My Lord, I have no great acquaintance with this man, 
nor do I desire to have further knowledge of him; however, this I know, 
that he is a very pestilent fellow, from some discourse that, 
the other day, I had with him in this town; for then, talking with him, 
I heard him say, that our religion was naught, and such by which 
a man could by no means please God.  Which sayings of his, my Lord, 
your Lordship very well knows, what necessarily thence will follow, 
to wit, that we do still worship in vain, are yet in our sins, 
and finally shall be damned; and this is that which I have to say. 
Then was Pickthank sworn, and bid say what he knew, 
in behalf of their lord the king, against the prisoner at the bar. 
Pick. My Lord, and you gentlemen all, This fellow I have known 
of a long time, and have heard him speak things that ought not 
to be spoke; for he hath railed on our noble prince Beelzebub, 
and hath spoken contemptibly of his honourable friends, 
 whose names are 
the Lord Old Man, the Lord Carnal Delight, the Lord Luxurious, 
the Lord Desire of Vain Glory, my old Lord Lechery, Sir Having Greedy, 
with all the rest of our nobility; and he hath said, moreover, 
That if all men were of his mind, if possible, there is not 
one of these noblemen should have any longer a being in this town. 
Besides, he hath not been afraid to rail on you, my Lord, 
who are now appointed to be his judge, calling you an ungodly villain, 
with many other such like vilifying terms, with which 
he hath bespattered most of the gentry of our town. 
When this Pickthank had told his tale, the Judge directed his speech 
to the prisoner at the bar, saying, Thou runagate, heretic, and traitor, 
hast thou heard what these honest gentlemen have witnessed against thee? 
FAITH.  May I speak a few words in my own defence? 
JUDGE.  Sirrah! sirrah! thou deservest to live no longer, 
but to be slain immediately upon the place; yet, that all men may see 
our gentleness towards thee, let us hear what thou, vile runagate, 
hast to say. 
FAITH.  1.  I say, then, in answer to what Mr. Envy hath spoken, 
I never said aught but this, That what rule, or laws, or customs, 
or people, were flat against the Word of God, are diametrically opposite 
to Christianity.  If I have said amiss in this, convince me of my error, 
and I am ready here before you to make my recantation. 
2.  As to the second, to wit, Mr. Superstition, and his charge 
against me, I said only this, That in the worship of God 
there is required a Divine faith; but there can be no Divine faith 
without a Divine revelation of the will of God.  Therefore, 
whatever is thrust into the worship of God that is not agreeable 
to Divine revelation, cannot be done but by a human faith, 
which faith will not be profitable to eternal life. 
3. As to what Mr. Pickthank hath said, I say (avoiding terms, 
as that I am said to rail, and the like) that the prince of this town, 
with all the rabblement, his attendants, by this gentleman named, 
are more fit for a being in hell, than in this town and country: 
and so, the Lord have mercy upon me! 
Then the Judge called to the jury (who all this while stood by, 
to hear and observe):  Gentlemen of the jury, you see this man 
about whom so great an uproar hath been made in this town. 
You have also heard what these worthy gentlemen have witnessed 
against him.  Also you have heard his reply and confession. 
It lieth now in your breasts to hang him or save his life; 
but yet I think meet to instruct you into our law. 
There was an Act made in the days of Pharaoh the Great, 
servant to our prince, that lest those of a contrary religion 
should multiply and grow too strong for him, their males should be 
thrown into the river.  [Exo. 1:22]  There was also an Act made 
in the days of Nebuchadnezzar the Great, another of his servants, 
that whosoever would not fall down and worship his golden image, 
should be thrown into a fiery furnace.  [Dan. 3:6]  There was also 
an Act made in the days of Darius, that whoso, for some time, 
called upon any god but him, should be cast into the lions' den. 
[Dan. 6]  Now the substance of these laws this rebel has broken, 
not only in thought, (which is not to be borne), but also 
in word and deed; which must therefore needs be intolerable. 
For that of Pharaoh, his law was made upon a supposition, 
to prevent mischief, no crime being yet apparent; 
but here is a crime apparent.  For the second and third, 
you see he disputeth against our religion; and for the treason 
he hath confessed, he deserveth to die the death. 
Then went the jury out, whose names were, Mr. Blind-man, Mr. No-good, 
Mr. Malice, Mr. Love-lust, Mr. Live-loose, Mr. Heady, Mr. High-mind, 
Mr. Enmity, Mr. Liar, Mr. Cruelty, Mr. Hate-light, and Mr. Implacable; 
who every one gave in his private verdict against him among themselves, 
and afterwards unanimously concluded to bring him in guilty 
before the Judge.    And first, 
among themselves, Mr. Blind-man, the foreman, said, 
I see clearly that this man is a heretic.  Then said Mr. No-good, 
Away with such a fellow from the earth.  Ay, said Mr. Malice, 
for I hate the very looks of him.  Then said Mr. Love-lust, 
I could never endure him.  Nor I, said Mr. Live-loose, 
for he would always be condemning my way.  Hang him, hang him, 
said Mr. Heady.  A sorry scrub, said Mr. High-mind. 
My heart riseth against him, said Mr. Enmity.  He is a rogue, 
said Mr. Liar.  Hanging is too good for him, said Mr. Cruelty. 
Let us despatch him out of the way, said Mr. Hate-light. 
Then said Mr. Implacable, Might I have all the world given me, 
I could not be reconciled to him;  therefore, let us forthwith bring him in guilty of death. 
And so they did; therefore he was presently condemned to be had 
from the place where he was, to the place from whence he came, 
and there to be put to the most cruel death that could be invented. 
They therefore brought him out, to do with him according to their law; 
and, first, they scourged him, then they buffeted him, 
then they lanced his flesh with knives; after that, they stoned him 
with stones, then pricked him with their swords; and, last of all, 
they burned him to ashes at the stake.  Thus came Faithful to his end. 
Now I saw that there stood behind the multitude a chariot 
and a couple of horses, waiting for Faithful, who (so soon as 
his adversaries had despatched him) was taken up into it, 
and straightway was carried up through the clouds, 
with sound of trumpet, the nearest way to the Celestial Gate. 
      Brave FAITHFUL, bravely done in word and deed; 
      Judge, witnesses, and jury have, instead 
      Of overcoming thee, but shown their rage: 
      When they are dead, thou'lt live from age to age*. 
*In the New Heaven and New Earth.  {footnote from one edition} 
But as for Christian, he had some respite, and was remanded 
back to prison.  So he there remained for a space; 
but He that overrules all things, having the power of their rage 
in his own hand, so wrought it about, that Christian for that time 
escaped them, and went his way.  And as he went, he sang, saying-- 
     Well, Faithful, thou hast faithfully profest 
     Unto thy Lord; with whom thou shalt be blest, 
     When faithless ones, with all their vain delights, 
     Are crying out under their hellish plights: 
     Sing, Faithful, sing, and let thy name survive; 
     For though they kill'd thee, thou art yet alive! 
Now I saw in my dream, that Christian went not forth alone, 
for there was one whose name was Hopeful (being made so 
by the beholding of Christian and Faithful in their words and behaviour, 
in their sufferings at the fair), who joined himself unto him, and, 
entering into a brotherly covenant, told him that he would be 
his companion.  Thus, one died to bear testimony to the truth, 
and another rises out of his ashes, to be a companion with Christian 
in his pilgrimage.   
This Hopeful also told Christian, that there were many more 
of the men in the fair, that would take their time and follow after. 
So I saw that quickly after they were got out of the fair, 
they overtook one that was going before them, whose name was By-ends: 
so they said to him, What countryman, Sir? and how far go you this way? 
He told them that he came from the town of Fair-speech, 
and he was going to the Celestial City (but told them not his name). 
From Fair-speech! said Christian.  Is there any good that lives there? 
[Prov. 26:25] 
BY-ENDS.  Yes, said By-ends, I hope. 
CHR.  Pray, Sir, what may I call you? said Christian. 
BY-ENDS.  I am a stranger to you, and you to me:  if you be going 
this way, I shall be glad of your company; if not, I must be content. 
CHR.  This town of Fair-speech, said Christian, I have heard of; 
and, as I remember, they say it is a wealthy place. 
BY-ENDS.  Yes, I will assure you that it is; and I have very many 
rich kindred there. 
CHR.  Pray, who are your kindred there? if a man may be so bold. 
BY-ENDS.  Almost the whole town; and in particular, my Lord Turn-about, 
my Lord Time-server, my Lord Fair-speech, (from whose ancestors 
that town first took its name), also Mr. Smooth-man, 
Mr. Facing-both-ways, Mr. Any-thing; and the parson of our parish, 
Mr. Two-tongues, was my mother's own brother by father's side; 
and to tell you the truth, I am become a gentleman of good quality, 
yet my great-grandfather was but a waterman, looking one way 
and rowing another, and I got most of my estate by the same occupation. 
CHR.  Are you a married man? 
BY-ENDS.  Yes, and my wife is a very virtuous woman, 
the daughter of a virtuous woman; she was my Lady Feigning's daughter, 
therefore she came of a very honourable family, and is arrived 
to such a pitch of breeding, that she knows how to carry it to all, 
even to prince and peasant.    It is true we somewhat differ in religion 
from those of the stricter sort, yet but in two small points: 
first, we never strive against wind and tide; secondly, 
we are always most zealous when religion goes in his silver slippers; 
we love much to walk with him in the street, if the sun shines, 
and the people applaud him. 
Then Christian stepped a little aside to his fellow, Hopeful, 
saying, It runs in my mind that this is one By-ends of Fair-speech; 
and if it be he, we have as very a knave in our company as dwelleth 
in all these parts.  Then said Hopeful, Ask him; methinks he should not 
be ashamed of his name.  So Christian came up with him again, and said, 
Sir, you talk as if you knew something more than all the world doth; 
and if I take not my mark amiss, I deem I have half a guess of you: 
Is not your name Mr. By-ends, of Fair-speech? 
BY-ENDS.  This is not my name, but indeed it is a nick-name 
that is given me by some that cannot abide me:  and I must be content 
to bear it as a reproach, as other good men have borne theirs before me. 
CHR.  But did you never give an occasion to men to call you 
by this name? 
BY-ENDS.  Never, never! The worst that ever I did to give them 
an occasion to give me this name was, that I had always the luck 
to jump in my judgment with the present way of the times, 
whatever it was, and my chance was to get thereby; but if things 
are thus cast upon me, let me count them, a blessing; 
but let not the malicious load me therefore with reproach. 
CHR.  I thought, indeed, that you were the man that I heard of; 
and to tell you what I think, I fear this name belongs to you 
more properly than you are willing we should think it doth. 
BY-ENDS.  Well, if you will thus imagine, I cannot help it; 
you shall find me a fair company-keeper, if you will still admit me 
your associate. 
CHR.  If you will go with us, you must go against wind and tide; 
the which, I perceive, is against your opinion; you must also own 
religion in his rags, as well as when in his silver slippers; 
and stand by him, too, when bound in irons, as well as when 
he walketh the streets with applause. 
BY-ENDS.  You must not impose, nor lord it over my faith; 
leave me to my liberty, and let me go with you. 
CHR.  Not a step further, unless you will do in what I propound as we. 
Then said By-ends, I shall never desert my old principles, 
since they are harmless and profitable.  If I may not go with you, 
I must do as I did before you overtook me, even go by myself, 
until some overtake me that will be glad of my company. 
Now I saw in my dream that Christian and Hopeful forsook him, 
and kept their distance before him; but one of them looking back, 
saw three men following Mr. By-ends, and behold, as they 
came up with him, he made them a very low conge {conge'}; 
and they also gave him a compliment.   
The men's names were Mr. Hold-the-world, Mr. Money-love, 
and Mr. Save-all; men that Mr. By-ends had formerly been 
acquainted with; for in their minority they were schoolfellows, 
and were taught by one Mr. Gripe-man, a schoolmaster in Love-gain, 
which is a market town in the county of Coveting, in the north. 
This schoolmaster taught them the art of getting, either by violence, 
cozenage, flattery, lying, or by putting on the guise of religion; 
and these four gentlemen had attained much of the art of their master, 
so that they could each of them have kept such a school themselves. 
Well, when they had, as I said, thus saluted each other, 
Mr. Money-love said to Mr. By-ends, Who are they upon the road 
before us? (for Christian and Hopeful were yet within view). 
BY-ENDS.  They are a couple of far countrymen, that, after their mode, 
are going on pilgrimage. 
MONEY-LOVE.  Alas!  Why did they not stay, that we might have had 
their good company? for they, and we, and you, Sir, I hope, 
are all going on pilgrimage. 
BY-ENDS.  We are so, indeed; but the men before us are so rigid, 
and love so much their own notions, and do also so lightly esteem 
the opinions of others, that let a man be never so godly, 
yet if he jumps not with them in all things, they thrust him 
quite out of their company. 
SAVE-ALL.  That is bad, but we read of some that are righteous overmuch; 
and such men's rigidness prevails with them to judge and condemn 
all but themselves.  But, I pray, what, and how many, 
were the things wherein you differed? 
BY-ENDS.  Why, they, after their headstrong manner, 
conclude that it is duty to rush on their journey all weathers; 
and I am for waiting for wind and tide.  They are for hazarding all 

(continued in part 9...)

file: /pub/resources/text/ipb-e/epl-03:pilgr-08.txt