Shorter Catechism, part 1/3 ===================== The Shorter Catechism ===================== with scripture proofs ===================== Original complete title: THE SHORTER CATECHISM, agreed upon by The Assembly of Divines at Westminster, with the Assistance of Commissioners from the Church of Scotland, as a part of the covenanted uniformity in religion betwixt the churches of Christ in the kingdoms of Scotland, England, and Ireland. And approved Anno 1648, by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, to be a Directory for catechising such as are of weaker Capacity with references to the Proofs from the Scripture The Ministers of Westminster left to posterity the most thoroughly thought-out statement ever penned of the elements of evangelical religion, and also one which breathes the finest flagrance of spiritual religion. Their most influential work, "The Shorter Catechism", was intended as a teaching basis for an introduction to the Christian Faith. Questions and answers Scripture proofs Ql: What is the chief end (1) 1 Cor.10:31 Whether therefore ye of man? eat, or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God. A: Man's chief end is to (2) Ps.73:25 Whom have I in heaven but glorify God, (1) and to thee? and there is none upon earth enjoy him for ever. (2) that I desire beside thee. Q2: What rule hath God (1) Eph.2:20 And are built upon the given to direct us how we foundation of the apostles and may glorify and enjoy him? prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone. A: The Word of God, which 2 Tim.3:16 All scripture is given by is contained in the inspiration of God, and is profitable Scriptures of the Old and for doctrine, for reproof, for New Testaments, (l) is the correction, for instruction in only rule to direct us how righteousness. we may glorify and enjoy (2) 1 Joh.1:3 That which we have seen him. (2) and heard declare we unto you, that ye also may have fellowship with us: and truly our fellowship is with the Father, and with his Son Jesus Christ. Q3: What do the Scriptures (1) 2 Tim.1:13 Hold fast the form of principally teach? sound words, which thou hast heard of me, in faith and love which is in A: The Scriptures Christ Jesus. principally teach what man is to believe concerning God, and what duty God requires of man. (1) Q4: What is God? (1) Joh.4:24 God is a Spirit: and they that worship him must worship him in A: God is a Spirit, (1) spirit and in truth. infinite, (2) eternal, (3) (2) Job 11:7 Canst thou by searching and unchangeable, (4) in find out God? canst thou find out the his being, (5) wisdom, (6) Almighty unto perfection? power, (7) holiness, (8) (3) Ps.90:2 From everlasting to justice, goodness, and everlasting, thou art God. truth. (9) (4) Jam.1:17 The Father of lights, with whom is no variableness, neither shadow of turning. (5) Exod.3:14 And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you. (6) Ps.147:5 Great is our Lord, and of great power: his understanding is infinite. (7) Rev.4:8 Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, which was, and is, and is to come. (8) Rev.15:4 Who shall not fear thee, O Lord, and glorify thy name? for thou only art holy. (9) Exod.34:6 And the LORD passed by before him, and proclaimed, The LORD, The LORD God, merciful and gracious, longsuffering, and abundant in goodness and truth. V7: Keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty. Q5: Are there more Gods (1) Deut.6:4 Hear, O Israel: The LORD than one? our God is one LORD. (2) Jer.10:10 But the LORD is the true A: There is but one only, God, he is the living God, and an (1) the living and true everlasting king: at his wrath the God. (2) earth shall tremble, and the nations shall not be able to abide his indignation. Q6: How many persons are (1) Matt.28:19 Go ye therefore, and there in the Godhead? teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the A: There are three persons Son, and of the Holy Ghost. in the Godhead; the father, (2) 1 Joh.5:7 For there are three that the Son, and the Holy bear record in heaven, the Father, the Ghost; (1) and these three Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these are one God, the same in three are one. substance, equal in power and glory. (2) Q7: What are the decrees of (1) Eph.1:11 Being predestinated God? according to the purpose of him who worketh all things after the counsel A: The decrees of God are of his own will. V12: Eph.1:12 That we his eternal purpose, should be to the praise of his glory. according to the counsel of his will, whereby, for his own glory, he hath foreordained whatsoever comes to pass. (1) Q8: How doth God execute (1) Rev.4:11 Thou hast created all his decrees? things, and for thy pleasure they are and were created. A: God executeth his (2) Dan.4:35 And all the inhabitants decrees in the works of of the earth are reputed as nothing: creation (1) and and he doeth according to his will in providence. (2) the army of heaven, and among the inhabitants of the earth: and none can stay his hand, or say unto him, What doest thou? Q9: What is the work of (1) Gen.1:1 In the beginning God creation? created the heaven and the earth. (2) Hebr.11:3 Through faith we A: The work of creation is, understand that the worlds were framed God's making all things of by the word of God, so that things nothing, (1) by the word of which are seen were not made of things his power, (2) in the space which do appear. of six days, and all very (3) Gen.1:31 And God saw every thing good. (3) that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day. Q10: How did God create (1) Gen.1:27 So God created man in his man? own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he A: God created man male and them. female, after his own (2) Col.3:10 And have put on the new image, (1) in knowledge, man, which is renewed in knowledge righteousness, and after the image of him that created holiness, (2) with dominion him: over the creatures. (3) Eph.4:24 And that ye put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness. (3) Gen.1:28 And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth. Ql1: What are God's works (1) Ps.145:17 The LORD is righteous in of providence? all his ways, and holy in all his works. A: God's works of (2) Isa.28:29 This also cometh forth providence are, his most from the LORD of hosts, which is holy, (1) wise (2), and wonderful in counsel, and excellent in powerful preserving (3) and working. governing all his (3) Hebr.1:3 Upholding all things by creatures, and all their the word of his power. actions. (4) (4) Ps.103:19 His kingdom ruleth over all. Matt.10:29 Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing? and one of them shall not fall on the ground without your Father. Q12: What special act of (1) Gal.3:12 And the law is not of providence did God exercise faith: but, The man that doeth them toward man in the estate shall live in them. wherein he was created? (2) Gen.2:17 But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt A: When God had created not eat of it: for in the day that man, he entered into a thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely covenant of life with him, die. upon condition of perfect obedience; (l) forbidding him to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, upon the pain of death. (2) Q13: Did our first parents (1) Eccl.7:29 Lo, this only have I continue in the estate found, that God hath made man upright; wherein they were created? but they have sought out many inventions. A: Our first parents, being left to the freedom of their own will, fell from the estate wherein they were created, by sinning against God. (1) Q14: What is sin? (1) 1 Joh.3:4 Whosoever committeth sin transgresseth also the law: for sin is A: Sin is any want of the transgression of the law. conformity unto, or transgression of, the law of God. (1) Q15: What was the sin Gen.3:6 And when the woman saw that whereby our first parents the tree was good for food, and that fell from the estate it was pleasant to the eyes, and a wherein they were created? tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did A: The sin whereby our eat, and gave also unto her husband first parents fell from the with her; and he did eat. V7 And the estate wherein they were eyes of them both were opened, and created, was their eating they knew that they were naked. V8 And the forbidden fruit. (l) Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden. Ql6: Did all mankind fall Gen.1:28 And God blessed them, and God in Adam's first said unto them, Be fruitful, and transgression? multiply, and replenish the earth. Gen.2:16 And the LORD God commanded A: The covenant being made the man, saying, Of every tree of the with Adam, not only for garden thou mayest freely eat. V17 But himself, but for his of the tree of the knowledge of good posterity; (l) all mankind, and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: descending from him by for in the day that thou eatest ordinary generation, sinned thereof thou shalt surely die. in him, and fell with him, Rom.5:18 By the offence of one in his first transgression. judgment came upon all men to (2) condemnation. Q17: Into what estate did (1) Rom.5:12 By one man sin entered the fall bring mankind? into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that A: The fall brought mankind all have sinned. into an estate of sin and misery. (1) Q18: Wherein consists the (1) Rom.5:19 By one man's disobedience sinfulness of that estate many were made sinners. whereinto man fell? (2) Rom.3:10 There is none righteous, no, not one. A: The sinfulness of that (3) Eph.2:1 You hath he quickened, who estate whereinto man fell, were dead in trespasses and sins. consists in the guilt of Ps.51:5 Behold, I was shapen in Adam's first sin, (1) the iniquity; and in sin did my mother want of original conceive me. righteousness, (2) and the (4) Matt.15:19 For out of the heart corruption of his whole proceed evil thoughts, murders, nature, which is commonly adulteries, fornications, thefts, called Original Sin; (3) false witness, blasphemies. V20 These together with all actual are the things which defile a man. transgressions which proceed from it. (4) Q19: What is the misery of (1) Gen.3:8 Adam and his wife hid that estate whereinto man themselves from the presence of the fell? LORD God amongst the trees of the garden. V24 So he drove out the man. A: All mankind by their (2) Eph.2:3 And were by nature the fall lost communion with children of wrath, even as others. God, (1) are under his Gal.3:10 Cursed is every one that wrath and curse, (2) and so continueth not in all things which are made liable to all miseries written in the book of the law to do in this life, to death them. itself, and to the pains of (3) Rom.6:23 The wages of sin is hell for ever. (3) death. Matt.25:41 Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels. Q20: Did God leave all (1) Eph.1:4 According as he hath mankind to perish in the chosen us in him before the foundation estate of sin and misery? of the world. (2) Rom.3:21 But now the righteousness A: God having, out of his of God without the law is manifested, mere good pleasure, from being witnessed by the law and the all eternity, elected some prophets. V22 Even the righteousness to everlasting life, (1) of God which is by faith of Jesus did enter into a covenant Christ unto all and upon all them that of grace, to deliver them believe. out of the estate of sin and misery, and to bring them into an estate of salvation by a Redeemer. (2) Q21: Who is the Redeemer of (1) 1 Tim.2:5 For there is one God, God's elect? and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus. A: The only Redeemer of (2) Joh.1:14 And the Word was made God's elect is the Lord flesh, and dwelt among us. Jesus Christ, (1) who, (3) Rom.9:5 Whose are the fathers, and being the eternal Son of of whom as concerning the flesh Christ God, became man, (2) and so came, who is over all, God blessed for was, and continueth to be, ever. Amen. God and man in two distinct (4) Hebr.7:24 But this man, because he natures, and one person, continueth ever, hath an unchangeable (3) for ever. (4) priesthood. Q22: How did Christ, being (1) Hebr.2:14 Forasmuch then as the the Son of God, become man? children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took A: Christ, the Son of God, part of the same. became man, by taking to (2) Matt.26:38 Then saith he unto himself a true body, (1) them, My soul is exceeding sorrowful, and a reasonable soul, (2) even unto death. being conceived by the (3) Luk.1:31 And, behold, thou shalt power of the Holy Ghost, in conceive in thy womb, and bring forth the womb of the Virgin a son, and shalt call his name JESUS. Mary, and born of her, (3) V35. The Holy Ghost shall come upon yet without sin. (4) thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee. (4) Hebr.7:26 For such an high priest became us, who is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners. Q23: What offices doth (1) Act.3:22 Moses truly said unto the Christ execute as our fathers, A prophet shall the Lord your Redeemer? God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me; him shall ye A: Christ, as our Redeemer, hear in all things whatsoever he shall executeth the offices of a say unto you. prophet, (1) of a priest, (2) Hebr.5:6 Thou art a priest for (2) and of a king, (3) both ever after the order of Melchisedec. in his estate of (3) Ps.2:6 Yet have I set my king upon humiliation and exaltation. my holy hill of Zion. Q24: How doth Christ (1) Joh.1:18 No man hath seen God at execute the office of a any time; the only begotten Son, which prophet? is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him. A: Christ executeth the (2) Joh.20:31 But these are written, office of a prophet in that ye might believe that Jesus is revealing to us, (l) by his the Christ, the Son of God; and that word (2) and Spirit, (3) believing ye might have life through the will of God for our his name. salvation. (3) Joh.14:26 But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things. Q25: How doth Christ (1) Hebr.9:28 Christ was once offered execute the office of a to bear the sins of many. priest? (2) Hebr.2:17 In all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, A: Christ executeth the that he might be a merciful and office of a priest, in his faithful high priest in things once offering up of himself pertaining to God, to make a sacrifice to satisfy reconciliation for the sins of the divine justice, (1) and people. reconcile us to God; (2) (3) Hebr.7:25 He is able also to save and in making continual them to the uttermost that come unto intercession for us. (3) God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them. Q26: How doth Christ (1) Ps.110:3 Thy people shall be execute the office of a willing in the day of thy power. king? (2) Isa.33:22 The LORD is our judge, the LORD is our lawgiver, the LORD is A: Christ executeth the our king; he will save us. office of a king, in (3) 1 Cor.15:25 For he must reign, subduing us to himself, (1) till he hath put all enemies under his in ruling and defending us, feet. (2) and in restraining and conquering all his and our enemies. (3) Q27: Wherein did Christ's (1) Luk.2:7 And she brought forth her humiliation consist? firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a A: Christ's humiliation manger. consisted in his being (2) Gal.4:4 God sent forth his Son, born, and that in a low made of a woman, made under the law. condition, (1) made under (3) Isa.53:3 He is despised and the law, (2) undergoing the rejected of men; a man of sorrows, and miseries of this life, (3) acquainted with grief. the wrath of God, (4) and (4) Matt.27:46 And about the ninth the cursed death of the hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, cross; (5) in being buried, saying, My God! my God! why hast thou and continuing under the forsaken me? power of death for a time. (5) Philip.2:8 He humbled himself, and (6) became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross. (6) Matt.12:40 As Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. (1) 1 Cor.15:4 And that he was buried, Q28: Wherein consisteth and that he rose again the third day Christ's exaltation? according to the scriptures: (2) Mar.16:19 So then after the Lord A: Christ's exaltation had spoken unto them, he was received consisteth in his rising up into heaven, and sat on the right again from the dead on the hand of God. third day, (1) in ascending (3) Act.17:31 He hath appointed a day, up into heaven, in sitting in the which he will judge the world at the right hand of God in righteousness by that man whom he the Father, (2) and in hath ordained; whereof he hath given coming to judge the world assurance unto all men, in that he at the last day. (3) hath raised him from the dead. Q29: How are we made (1) Joh.1:12 As many as received him, partakers of the redemption to them gave he power to become the purchased by Christ? sons of God. (2) Tit.3:5 Not by works of A: We are made partakers of righteousness which we have done, but the redemption purchased by according to his mercy he saved us, by Christ, by the effectual the washing of regeneration, and application of it to us (1) renewing of the Holy Ghost. V6 Which by his Holy Spirit. (2) he shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Saviour. Q30: How doth the Spirit (1) Eph.2:8 By grace are ye saved apply to us the redemption through faith; and that not of purchased by Christ? yourselves: it is the gift of God. (2) Eph.3:17 That Christ may dwell in A: The Spirit applieth to your hearts by faith, &c. us the redemption purchased 1 Cor.1:9 God is faithful, by whom ye by Christ, by working faith were called unto the fellowship of his in us, (1) and thereby Son Jesus Christ. uniting us to Christ in our effectual ca11ing. (2) Q31: What is effectual (1) 2 Tim.1:9 Who hath saved us, and calling? called us with an holy calling. (2) Act.2:37 Now when they heard this, A: Effectual calling is the they were pricked in their heart, and work of God's Spirit, (1) said unto Peter and to the rest of the whereby, convincing us of apostles, Men and brethren, what shall our sin and misery, (2) we do? enlightening our minds in (3) Act.26:18 To open their eyes, and the knowledge of Christ, to turn them from darkness to light, (3) and renewing our wills, and from the power of Satan unto God. (4) he doth persuade and (4) Ezek.36:26 I will take away the enable us to embrace Jesus stony heart out of your flesh, and I Christ, freely offered to will give you an heart of flesh. us in the gospel. (5) (5) Joh.6:44 No man can come to me, except the Father which hath sent me draw him. V45 Every man therefore that hath heard, and hath learned of the Father, cometh unto me. (1) Rom.8:30 Moreover whom he did Q32: What benefits do they predestinate, them he also called: and that are effectually called whom he called, them he also partake of in this life? justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified. A: They that are (2) Eph.1:5 Having predestinated us effectually called do in unto the adoption of children by Jesus this life partake of Christ to himself. justification, (1) (3) 1 Cor.1:30 But of him are ye in adoption, (2) and Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto sanctification, and the us wisdom, and righteousness, and several benefits which in sanctification, and redemption. this life do either accompany or flow from them. (3) Q33: What is justification? (1) Eph.1:7 In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of A: Justification is an act sins, according to the riches of his of God's free grace, grace. wherein he pardoneth all (2) 2 Cor.5:21 For he hath made him to our sins, (1) and accepteth be sin for us, who knew no sin; that us as righteous in his we might be made the righteousness of sight, (2) only for the God in him. righteousness of Christ (3) Rom.5:19 For as by one man's imputed to us, (3) and disobedience many were made sinners, received by faith alone. so by the obedience of one shall many (4) be made righteous. (4) Gal.2:16 Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ. Q34: What is adoption? (1) 1 Joh.3:1 Behold, what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, A: Adoption is an act of that we should be called the sons of God's free grace, (1) God! whereby we are received (2) Joh.1:12 But as many as received into the number, and have a him, to them gave he power to become right to all the privileges the sons of God, even to them that of the sons of God. (2) believe on his name. Rom.8:17 And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ. Q 3 5 : W h a t i s (1) 2 Thess.2:13 God hath from the sanctification? beginning chosen you to salvation through sanctification of the Spirit. A: Sanctification is the (2) Eph.4:24 And that ye put on the work of God's free grace, new man, which after God is created in (1) whereby we are renewed righteousness and true holiness. in the whole man after the (3) Rom.8:1 There is therefore now no image of God, (2) and are condemnation to them which are in enabled more and more to Christ Jesus, who walk not after the die unto sin, and live unto flesh, but after the Spirit. righteousness. (3) Q36: What arc the benefits (1) Rom.5:1 Therefore being justified which in this life do by faith, we have peace with God accompany or flow from through our Lord Jesus Christ. V2 By justification, adoption, whom also we have access by faith into and sanctification? this grace wherein we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God. A: The benefits which in V5 And hope maketh not ashamed; this life do accompany or because the love of God is shed abroad flow from justification, in our hearts by the Holy Ghost which a d o p t i o n , a n d is given unto us. sanctification, are, (2) Prov.4:18 The path of the just is assurance of God's love, as the shining light, that shineth peace of conscience, joy in more and more unto the perfect day. the Holy Ghost, (1) (3) 1 Joh.5:13 These things have I increase of grace, (2) and written unto you that believe on the perseverance therein to the name of the Son of God; that ye may end. (3) know that ye have eternal life. Q37: What benefits do (1) Hebr.12:23 And to the spirits of believers receive from just men made perfect. Christ at death? (2) Philip.1:23 Having a desire to depart, and to be with Christ. A: The souls of believers (3) 1 Thess.4:14 Them also which sleep are at their death made in Jesus will God bring with him. perfect in holiness, (1) (4) Isa.57:2 He shall enter into and do immediately pass peace: they shall rest in their beds, into glory; (2) and their each one walking in his uprightness. bodies, being still united (5) Job 19:26 And though after my skin to Christ, (3) do rest in worms destroy this body, yet in my their graves (4) till the flesh shall I see God. resurrection. (5) Q38: What benefits do (1) 1 Cor.15:43 It is sown in believers receive from dishonour; it is raised in glory. Christ at the resurrection? (2) Matt.10:32 Whosoever therefore shall confess me before men, him will A: At the resurrection, I confess also before my Father which believers being raised up is in heaven. in glory, (1) shall be (3) 1 Joh.3:2 When he shall appear, we openly acknowledged and shall be like him; for we shall see acquitted in the day of him as he is. judgment, (2) and made (4) 1 Thess.4:17 And so shall we ever perfectly blessed in the be with the Lord. full enjoying of God (3) to all eternity. (4) -------------------------------------------------- file: /pub/resources/text/ipb-e/cate: short-01.txt .